Mycoplasma treatment in men
Mycoplasmosis in men - an inflammatory disease of the genitourinary tract, related to sexually transmitted infections. It often proceeds asymptomatically, less often with manifestations in the form of cuts, pain during urination with irradiation in the groin, discharge from the penis, and fever. Laboratory diagnosis of mycoplasmosis is based on the detection of pathogens in biological fluids, serological studies are allowed. Treatment of infection is always complex, using etiotropic, pathogenetic, symptomatic therapy, and non-drug methods.
Mycoplasmosis in men is one of the most common causes of damage to the genitourinary system. The pathogen was first identified in 1980. The proportion of mycoplasma infection among non-gonococcal and non-chlamydial urethritis in the male population is about 10-35%, among healthy individuals, the release of mycoplasmas ranges from 1 to 3.3%. A tendency to persist infection was noted in 40% of patients, while men older than 35 years most often suffer. Studies in sub-Saharan Africa have shown that prolonged untreated mycoplasmosis leads to an increased risk of HIV infection.
Mycoplasma in men: symptoms
What are the symptoms of mycoplasma in men?
Clinical signs may be more pronounced or erased.
Signs and symptoms of the disease in men and women may vary.
The characteristic symptoms of mycoplasmosis in men include:
- Transparent, scanty discharge from the urethra
- Redness of the head of the penis may be observed.
- Burning along the urethral canal
- Itching and burning in the morning
- Men have a slight discharge from the urethra
- Drawing in groin area
- Possible low-grade fever in acute course of the disease
The causative agent of mycoplasmosis is the bacterium M. Genitalium. The source is a sick person, often with a latent course of the disease, with erased symptoms. Transmission of pathogens in men is usually done through direct contact of the mucous membranes of the genital organs during the anogenital, oral-genital and vaginal methods of sexual penetration. Often there is a mixed infection with ureaplasmas, trichomonads, etc. The main risk factors:
- unprotected sex, especially homosexual
- regular hypothermia
- non-observance of the rules of intimate hygiene
- abuse of alcohol, drugs, smoking.
At risk are people with weakened immune systems, endocrine diseases, after organ transplantation, commercial sex workers.
Symptoms of mycoplasmosis in men: when are they manifested?
The first symptoms of mycoplasmosis in men in the form of burning in the morning can be observed as early as a week after contact.
Often the symptoms are erased or minor.
The lack of diagnosis and treatment contributes to the transition of mycoplasmosis into a chronic form.
The incubation period for mycoplasmosis in men can last up to 2 weeks.
Rarely can a period be longer.
The pathogenesis of mycoplasmosis is not fully understood. It is known that M.Genitalium, adhering to the surface of the host cell, triggers a pro-inflammatory cascade of chemokines through highly pronounced innate immune sensors, including Toll-like receptors 2, 6, the binding of which to M. Genitalium and its lipoproteins leads to the induction of genes involved in cell defense. These pro-inflammatory signals lead to the involvement of white blood cells in the focus of mycoplasma presence.
The treatment regimen for mycoplasma in men
To treat or not to treat mycoplasma symptoms in men?
The answer is unequivocal: mycoplasma needs to be treated.
If you doubt the need for treatment of mycoplasmosis, consult your doctor.
When choosing an antibiotic, the doctor focuses on classes with a drug that can penetrate through the cell wall.
In order to act on mycoplasma, drugs of the following groups should be bulged out:
- I. Tetracycline series
- II. Fluoroquinolone series
- III. Macrolides
If possible, antibiotics should be prescribed taking into account the sensitivity of the bacterial agent.
This is especially important with frequent morbidity and the experience of taking antibacterial agents earlier.
The treatment regimen for mycoplasmosis in men can be supplemented with eubiotics, immunostimulants and vitamin therapy.
It is important to follow a diet during treatment.
Important: the doctor selects the dose of the antibiotic according to the patient’s weight and clinical manifestations. Do not self-medicate: it is unacceptable to take antibacterial drugs on your own.
Please note that uncontrolled use of drugs for the treatment of mycoplasma in men can lead to resistance.
As complications of antibiotic treatment, diarrhea is often observed.
Many antibiotics effective in mycoplasmosis have a bacteriostatic effect.
Preparations for the treatment of mycoplasmosis in men do not destroy microorganisms, but stop their reproduction.
Weakened mycoplasmas die under the natural influence of immune cells.
Immunomodulators enhance the activity of human immune cells and contribute to the process.
Treatment of mycoplasma hominis in men: drugs
With the appearance of characteristic symptoms of mycoplasmosis, you should definitely see a specialist.
In the case of self-treatment, there is a risk of complications.
The disease can go into a chronic stage and contribute to the development of infertility.
Mycoplasma in men is treated with antibiotics.
Mostly these are such groups of drugs as:
Note! Both partners should undergo treatment of mycoplasmosis in order to exclude a relapse of the disease.
When prescribing an antibacterial drug, the dose and course are calculated individually for each patient.
Consider each group of antibacterial drugs in more detail.
Tetracyclines are broad-spectrum antibiotics.
For the treatment of mycoplasma, the most commonly used antibiotic of this group is doxycycline.
This drug has a minimal effect on the body, but it copes well with mycoplasma.
Doxycycline is prescribed in the form of tablets.
Sometimes this drug can be taken in suspension.
The recommended dosage is 100 milligrams 2 times a day.
The course of treatment with this drug is a week.
Fluoroquinolones contribute to the cessation of reproduction of pathogenic microorganisms.
Preparations of this group gently affect the intestinal microflora.
The disadvantage of this group of antibacterial agents is the possible adverse effect on the body.
Therefore, taking these medicines for a long time is not recommended.
Ofloxacin is usually preferred.
It is prescribed in an amount of 300 mg - three times a day.
The duration of treatment is 10 days.
Macrolides contribute to the cessation of mycoplasma growth and its development.
Helps reduce the inflammation in the genitourinary organs.
These drugs are allowed to be used in long courses of treatment.
For treatment, Azithromycin or Josamycin is mainly prescribed.
Josamycin should be taken as follows: 500 mg 3 times a day.
The course lasts a week, sometimes the doctor can extend up to 10 days.
The treatment regimen must necessarily include immunostimulating drugs and probiotics.
Enzymes in the treatment of mycoplasma in men contribute to the restoration of intestinal microflora.
One of the drugs may be prescribed: Bifiform, Linex or Probifor.
Remember! After the course of treatment is completed, it is recommended to pass control tests.
Mycoplasma genitalia in men: treatment
Many men ask what Mycoplasma genitalium is and does it require urgent treatment?
The answer is definitely yes.
The lack of treatment leads to the development of serious complications.
In men, the following complications are distinguished:
- 1. Infertility
- 2. Pyelonephritis
- 3. Epididymitis
- 4. Prostatitis
- 5. Orchitis
For the treatment of genital mycoplasma, antibiotics are prescribed.
One of the most effective is azithromycin.
In addition to this antibacterial drug can be prescribed:
These drugs are aimed at stopping the growth and reproduction of microorganisms.
Azithromycin has an anti-inflammatory effect.
In the event that mycoplasma genitalium is resistant to this antibiotic, treatment with Azithromycin is useless.
Additional tests are required for the sensitivity of the microorganism to the antibacterial drug.
Azithromycin is prescribed for the treatment of urethritis with genital mycoplasma in men.
A single dose is 1 gram.
It should be taken orally once a day.
Erythromycin 500 mg is prescribed 4 times a day for a week.
Doxycycline It is prescribed only for adults, children under 9 years of age are not allowed to take this antibacterial agent.
Amoxilav - This is an antibiotic, which includes penicillin.
He copes well with genital mycoplasma and the consequences that it causes.
Physiotherapy in the treatment of mycoplasma in men includes:
- 1. Magnetotherapy
- 2. Laser therapy
- 3. Ozotherapy
- 4. Electrophoresis
Instillations in the treatment of mycoplasma in men
Instillation has a good therapeutic effect in the treatment of mycoplasmosis.
“What is an instillation?” - you ask.
This is a procedure in which the drug is administered directly into the urethra or bladder.
This treatment method allows you to quickly get rid of the disease, due to the penetration of the drug directly into the focus of the inflammatory process.
Treatment of prostatitis with mycoplasma in men
For the treatment of prostatitis, correction of the immune system and prostate massage are used.
In most cases, antibiotics for prostatitis are prescribed when an infection is detected.
Prostate massage in the treatment of mycoplasmosis can improve the functioning of processes in the reproductive system.
For the best effect, prostate massage should be taken in a course.
After treatment is completed, after 21 days control studies should be completed.
For control, PCR diagnostics are used.
Treatment of orchitis and orchoepididymitis due to mycoplasma
Orchitis and orchoepididymitis are diseases that are characterized by the inflammatory process of the testicle.
Orheoepididymitis, besides the testicle, affects its appendages.
Most often, the disease is the cause of viral mumps.
But there is also orchitis due to mycoplasma.
Treatment of orchitis should begin with the following symptoms:
- Pain in the scrotum, which can only bother on one side
- Testicular enlargement
- Hyperemia of the skin of the scrotum
- Pain while walking in the perineum
- Testicular seal
If the above symptoms appear, you should contact a urologist.
Before prescribing treatment, the doctor will conduct an examination and prescribe laboratory tests.
Based on the results of the diagnosis, treatment will be prescribed, which includes compliance with bed rest.
To relieve pain, you can apply cold to an inflamed area.
Keep the bag of ice on the scrotum should be from 10 to 15 minutes.
Repeat recommended 4 times a day.
Special elastic underwear will help reduce pain.
It allows you to maintain the genitals, thereby reducing soreness.
In the treatment of orchitis and orchoepididymitis caused by mycoplasma, antibiotic therapy cannot be dispensed with.
As antibiotic therapy used:
- 1. Ofloxacin
- 2. Norfoxacin
- 3. Doxycycline
- 4. Sumamed
If severe pain is observed, Diclofenac or Ibuprofen should be taken.
Most often, treatment is carried out on an outpatient basis.
Hospitalization is carried out in the following cases:
- The presence of abscesses and purulent foci
- Severe general condition
Elderly patients often need hospitalization, for whom it is difficult to take drugs on their own.
The most common complications of mycoplasma urethritis include ascending inflammatory diseases of the genitourinary system: prostatitis, cystitis, pyelonephritis. Damage to the testicles and appendages is possible, with untreated epididymitis, infertility is often later diagnosed. Symptoms of proctitis may occur: fever, sharp pain in a sitting position, rectal purulent discharge.
Infertility with mycoplasmosis among men is of a complex nature: the onset of the condition is directly affected by the inflammatory process in the reproductive tract, as well as the ability of mycoplasmas to fix on sperm and limit their mobility. Chronic infection reduces the function of the prostate gland, forms connective tissue jumpers that interfere with the normal progress of seminal fluid.
Mycoplasma in men: where to go?
At the first symptoms of mycoplasmosis, it is recommended to consult a doctor.
High-quality medical care in Moscow can be obtained in a paid police department.
The cost of consulting a venereologist is 900 rubles.
If you suspect mycoplasmosis, contact the author of this article, a venereologist in Moscow with 15 years of experience.
General characteristics of mycoplasma
Mycoplasmas are very small bacteria that can live both on the surface of cell membranes and inside cells.
They are transmitted almost 100% sexually; in men, the front of the urethra is the first to be affected.
Subsequently, over several weeks, pathogens spread throughout the urethra.
Then they penetrate into the prostate, from there into the epididymis and testicles.
Defeat of the male reproductive system is not limited to.
In many patients, mycoplasmas lead to the development of reactive arthritis.
Joint pathology is infectious-autoimmune in nature, requires a special approach to treatment.
Most of the processes caused by mycoplasmas are sluggish, hidden in nature and therefore are detected in the chronic stages.
This feature also needs to be taken into account.
And so that the treatment is as effective as possible and does not lead to the development of resistance of pathogens to antibiotics, it is worth contacting an experienced dermatovenerologist.
You can come to the clinic, to a specialized clinic or doctor’s office.
The main thing is to have access to high-quality laboratory diagnostics.
It is necessary to start therapy only after confirming the mycoplasma in a man and ascertaining the prevalence of the process.
It is important to clarify the type of pathogen: if they find M. genitalium, then this means that you need to take a full course.
In case of detection M. hominis, their quantity matters (CFU - colony forming units).
With indicators CFU M. hominis less than 10 to 4 degrees and overall well-being, treatment can be delayed.
But if in the urogenital tract of a man there are signs of inflammation, then treatment is required unequivocally.
Diagnosis of mycoplasmosis among men and its treatment in most cases is carried out by urologists. Doctors of other specialties advise if indicated. A thorough examination of all sexual partners of the patient is necessary, especially when practicing unprotected sexual intercourse. The main clinical, laboratory and instrumental examinations for mycoplasmosis include:
- Physical data. Often, an objective examination with mycoplasmosis is uninformative, the symptoms are minimal. Soreness, hyperemia, swelling of the scrotum organs, discharge from the head of the penis, sensitivity to palpation in the suprapubic region, perineum, and digital examination of the prostate can be detected. With an ascending infection, a positive symptom of striking is possible. Urine is necessarily visually assessed, the nature of the discharge.
- Laboratory research. In the general blood test - slight leukocytosis, accelerated ESR, among the biochemical parameters in the presence of complications, an increase in the activity of CRP, creatinine, and urea is detected. In a general clinical analysis of urine, leukocyturia, erythrocyturia, an increase in the density of the urinary sediment are determined. In a smear from the urethra, a large number of white blood cells are found.
- Identification of Infectious Agents. The data of bacterioscopy of an urogenital smear are uninformative for the search for pathogens. The most informative is the PCR method for examining a smear from the urethra, prostate secretion, and urine. The "gold standard" for the diagnosis of mycoplasmosis is culture, but is not used in routine practice because of the high cost. Serological (ELISA) tests are performed with paired sera and an interval of at least two weeks.
- Instrumental methods. Needed for differential diagnosis. Ultrasound examinations of the urogenital apparatus, pelvis, and, if necessary, X-ray, CT, MRI of the lumbosacral spine, kidneys, genitals, and prostate biopsy with histological examination are performed. Less commonly used are colonoscopy, irrigoscopy.
Differential diagnosis of mycoplasmosis in men is carried out with ureaplasmosis and other non-gonococcal urethritis, while pathology is verified by laboratory methods due to the similarity of clinical manifestations. Urethritis of a different etiology has a history of traumatic, temperature or chemical damage, however, any non-infectious causes should be confirmed by negative studies for the presence of microbial pathogens.
Mycoplasmosis: general principles of therapy
It is quite difficult to deal with long-standing forms of mycoplasmosis, which are more often detected in men.
Practice shows that the best treatment results are achieved by observing the following principles:
- preliminary examination with specification of details of pathogen resistance to antibiotics,
- the use of "long" medication regimens,
- simultaneous treatment of the patient’s sexual partners, even if they have no signs of mycoplasma,
- use of physiotherapeutic techniques at the final stage of therapy,
- confirmation of recovery by laboratory tests.
For the entire course of treatment, a man should abandon any form of sex.
During ejaculation, the contents of the urethra are absorbed into the prostate and testicles, which leads to the spread of pathogens to the internal genital organs.
In addition, it is very high through the risk through sperm to infect the sexual partner.
And even during treatment, the seminal fluid is not immediately cleared of pathogens, sometimes it takes from 10 days to 3 weeks.
Methods for the detection of mycoplasmosis in men
It is impossible to determine the disease only by external examination and symptoms, since mycoplasmosis has similar signs with other types of infectious and inflammatory pathologies of the genitourinary system. For an accurate diagnosis, a specific study is necessary. The microscopic and cytological method for this disease is uninformative due to the ability of mycoplasma to take a different form.
For the diagnosis of mycoplasmosis, the following types of studies are used:
- Bakposev - targeted cultural reproduction of microflora from the urethra in a special nutrient medium and its subsequent study to identify pathogens of infectious pathologies. Bakseeding is used to detect mycoplasma hominis. This type of study is not suitable for the diagnosis of mycoplasma genitalium, since this type of pathogen does not multiply in the nutrient medium. The advantages of the method include the ability to test various drugs and choose the most effective.
- PCR (polymerase chain reaction) is the most informative and accurate research method, which allows you to diagnose any type of infection. Urine, smear, or scraping from the urethra, sperm, or blood may be taken for analysis to detect mycoplasmosis. The study reveals the DNA of the pathogen, even when the disease is in a latent stage. The advantage of this method is the ability to determine not only the type of pathogen, but also its quantity.
- ELISA is a specific blood test for the detection of antibodies to the causative agent of the disease. This type of study is quite informative in identifying various types of infections. However, with mycoplasmosis in the initial or latent stage it can be ineffective due to the fact that the pathogen can be located inside the cells and the immune response to it will be weak.
- CSC with paired sera is another immune blood test that can even detect mycoplasma inside the cells. The analysis of paired sera consists of two phases, due to which it is possible to identify the primary and secondary immune response of the body to infection.
With urogenital mycoplasmosis in men, the most effective research method is PCR diagnostics, but this analysis is not carried out in all medical institutions. With a targeted study, mycoplasmosis can be detected by a cultural method (bacosowing), and by the content of the pathogen, it can be determined whether the man is only a carrier of infection or if a pathological process has begun. In the first case, compliance with preventive measures and observation is required, in the second - it is necessary to begin treatment of the disease.
Preventive measures to avoid mycoplasmosis are quite simple:
- refuse to have promiscuous sex,
- compulsory examination by specialized doctors for the presence of pathogens in the body,
- stationary examination for a predisposition to a decrease in immunity.
In the absence of timely drug therapy, mycoplasmosis can lead to the following complications in the condition of a male patient:
- Due to the multiplication of mycoplasmas and the lack of proper treatment in the body, it can develop urethritis. The disease is an inflammation that affects the mucous membrane of the urinary tract. The characteristic features of urethritis are itching, burning, which intensifies during emptying and sexual intercourse. During ejaculation, severe pain and pain may be present.
- Often, against the background of this, it develops prostatitis. The disease is an inflammatory process that affects the prostate gland. In this case, pain in the inguinal region is noted, which intensifies with pressure. In addition, prostatitis contributes to pain and a decrease in potency during intercourse, making it virtually impossible.Some doctors consider the connection of the occurrence of prostatitis with mycoplasmosis to be unproven.
- Mycoplasmosis is a provocateur of testicular inflammation - orchitis. At the same time, pain sensations appear in the scrotum area, which intensify with pressure.
- Infertility in men, the most common problem with bacteria is mycoplasma. It is caused by a decrease in the volume and quality of secreted semen. Obstructive form of infertility in violation of patency of the vas deferens inflammatory inflammatory infiltrate.
- With the defeat of the testicles and prostate appear potency problems. Along with this, sexual intercourse is almost impossible, since an erection is short-lived or completely absent due to pain.
- The work of the bladder is often disrupted, and at the same time, diseases affecting the kidneys and provoking the development of a chronic or acute form develop pyelonephritis.
- Prostate abscess, a rare complication and occurs with a sufficiently significant decrease in the immunity of a man,
- Chronic urethritis, prostatitis, orchoepididymitis, pyelonephritis and cystitis.
- Maybe even joint damage.
Mycoplasmosis is a disease caused by mycoplasmas. These are opportunistic microorganisms, among which there are several species that can cause unpleasant symptoms in a person.
When ingested, the danger is:
Moreover, the first two pathogens provoke damage to the genitals. The latter causes pathologies of the bronchopulmonary system.
In total, more than 20 varieties of mycoplasmas are distinguished that do not pose a threat to humans. The disease is called opportunistic due to the fact that the microorganism does not always cause negative changes in the body. In some cases, the bacterium can live on the genitals for years, or even decades, without manifesting itself.
In order for the disease to remind itself, it is necessary to affect the body of factors that reduce immunity.
- contact with other pathogenic microorganisms, viruses, fungi,
- exposure to the body is too cold or, on the contrary, too hot temperatures,
- pregnancy and childbirth, as well as breastfeeding,
- birth defects of the immune system, etc.
Under the influence of any of these pathogenic factors, mycoplasma, caught in the body, can begin its active reproduction. This will inevitably lead to the appearance of unpleasant symptoms, which will require treatment. Mycoplasmosis transmission occurs mainly through sexual contact.
However, in some cases, infection through common household items, such as towels, linen, washcloths, is possible. Also, the infection can enter the baby’s body during childbirth. Due to the fact that there is direct contact of the child's body with infected mucous membranes.
Treatment of mycoplasmosis in men
Treatment is often done on an outpatient basis. Inpatient stay is recommended for patients with decompensated chronic diseases, severe infection, and complications requiring round-the-clock monitoring. The general, less often half-bed mode is shown. The diet is considered as a treatment: sour, spicy, pickled dishes, alcohol, coffee, nicotine are completely excluded.
For the period of treatment, it is recommended to refrain from sexual relations or be sure to use barrier methods of contraception (condom). When identifying the symptoms of mycoplasmosis, the partner undergoes joint treatment, prophylactic administration of etiotropic drugs does not have reliable benefits. The risk of infection of a healthy person during treatment, even with adequate therapy, without the use of contraception is more than 30%.
Mycoplasma antibiotic therapy in men
Some of the mycoplasmas persist within the epithelial cells.
Because of this, only those antibiotics that are able to cross the cell membrane will be effective.
These properties have drugs of three groups:
- Tetracycline series - doxycycline, minocycline.
- Macrolides and azalides - azithromycin, clarithromycin, josamycin.
- Fluoroquinolones - ofloxacin, moxifloxacin.
Immediately, we note that for individual men, a dermatovenerologist can prescribe drugs from two groups at once.
As a rule, mycoplasmas are transmitted with other pathogens of sexually transmitted infections, this point must be clarified and taken into account.
Otherwise, the risk of treatment failure is very high.
The mechanism of action is the inhibition of protein synthesis in microbial cells.
In particular, the formation of new RNA molecules is blocked, on which protein molecules of mycoplasmas are synthesized.
Among the positive features of doxycycline, there is a good tropism (ability to accumulate) to the tissues of the prostate gland and bones.
That is, one of the most vulnerable male organs is hiding - the prostate.
Along the way, good conditions are being created for the prevention and treatment of joint pathology (reactive arthritis caused by mycoplasma).
Doxycycline is well tolerated, low toxicity.
The treatment regimen involves taking the drug at 100 mg (usually 1 tablet / capsule) per day.
The timing of admission depends on the variant of the disease.
If this is not a complicated process, then the treatment lasts 3-5 days.
In the case of a long-standing complicated infection, the period for taking doxycycline is 5-7 days or more.
Side effects are quite rare.
Among the frequent:
- allergic skin reactions
- digestive disorders
- decreased blood coagulation.
The properties described above are inherent in principle to all tetracyclines.
Unfortunately, the treatment of mycoplasmas with such antibiotics is increasingly unsuccessful.
The main reason for the failure of treatment is the frequent resistance of pathogens to tetracycline drugs.
And if mycoplasma loses sensitivity to one of them, then the others also cease to act (cross-stability).
Macrolides and azalides
At the beginning of the XXI century, it is these drugs that are considered the most relevant for the fight against mycoplasmas.
The mechanism of action is based on the blocking of protein synthesis by the ribosomes of microorganisms, because of which they cannot multiply and die quickly.
The positive aspects of macrolides are:
- low toxicity
- low frequency of adverse reactions,
- tropism to the foci of inflammation - a high concentration of drugs is observed exactly where necessary,
- some anti-inflammatory effect.
In addition, macrolides are inherently effective against many other sexually transmitted pathogens.
It is very important, given that such microbes are rarely found "alone."
As a rule, in men, lesions of both mycoplasma hominis, genitalium and ureaplasma are noted simultaneously.
The treatment regimen is determined by the complexity of the process and the selected drug.
Typical treatment options:
- azithromycin 250 mg at the first dose, then - 2-3 days, 125 mg of the drug per day,
- 500 mg josamycin twice daily for 5 days,
- clarithromycin 500 mg once a day for a period of 5 days,
- pristinamycin 1 gram 2 times a day for at least 5 days.
Many dermatovenerologists prefer to use clarithromycin.
Since this drug is excreted mainly by the kidneys, which is very important for male urethritis and prostatitis.
Recommendations for the treatment of mycoplasmosis with a single dose of high dose (0.5 grams) of azithromycin wander around the network.
Such a “scheme” has absolutely no clinical significance.
It leads only to the formation of resistance in pathogens with the subsequent risk of failure in the treatment of prolonged courses.
Pristinamycin has proven effectiveness in the resistance of mycoplasmas to other drugs.
Therefore, they try not to use it unnecessarily in order to preserve the sensitivity of microbes.
Macrolides have few drawbacks and the main ones are incorrect reception, short courses.
Adverse reactions are mainly associated with allergic phenomena on the skin and are rare.
Ambiguous drugs with fairly noticeable toxicity and the likelihood of adverse reactions.
Therefore, they are used in case of detection of resistance of mycoplasmas to tetracyclines and macrolides.
The mechanism of action of fluoroquinolones is to inhibit the synthesis of microbial DNA, because of which pathogens lose their ability to reproduce and die.
Typical treatment regimens:
- ofloxacin 200 mg per day for a period of 5 days,
- 400 mg moxifloxacin once daily for 5 days.
Doctors try not to use fluoroquinolones unnecessarily because of the risks associated with their use.
Among the adverse reactions stand out:
- digestive disorders (dysbiosis and colitis),
- pronounced negative effect on the kidneys and liver,
- allergic phenomena from urticaria to bullous forms,
- effect on the work of the heart,
- mental disorders (depression, anxiety).
Fortunately, many of the reactions described above do not have time to develop in the period that is needed for the course.
It would seem, but such simple tips and tricks can save many men from the exciting minutes spent in the doctor’s office to get rid of mycoplasmosis.
Refuse the use of alternative methods of treatment, because they not only can not lead to the expected recovery, but can only aggravate the situation.
What kind of cytomegalovirus does this happen in men? How is this form of herpes different from others?
Read here about what open injuries of the penis can result from careless handling of the “device”.
Is therapy always required
Today, doctors still do not agree on whether treatment of mycoplasmosis is always necessary. If so, what principles do you follow to succeed? Because of this, both patients and doctors face a number of difficulties.
First of all, it is recommended to focus on the results of analyzes. The normal content of mycoplasma in the body is considered an indicator not exceeding 10 to 4 degrees CFU / ml. If there are more bacteria in the body, it is recommended that you think about the need for therapy. It would seem that everything is simple - I passed the analysis, got the result, started treatment.
However, in reality, this is not so.
Many doctors refuse to prescribe therapy if there are more bacteria in the body, but this does not manifest itself with any alarming symptoms. However, treatment can be prescribed if the number of bacteria is less than 10 in 4 degrees CFU / ml. But there are unpleasant symptoms affecting the quality of human life.
The patient may complain of:
- the appearance of transparent or slightly whitish discharge from the urethra, vagina (in men, discharge is especially intense in the morning),
- genital itching, burning, other unpleasant sensations,
- the appearance on the genitals of a rash that can itch,
- the appearance of pain in the lower abdomen,
- unpleasant sensations, such as soreness, pain when trying to empty the bladder,
- the appearance of unpleasant feelings during intercourse or immediately after it.
In men, the bacterium can migrate to the testes or prostate, provoking the development of orchitis, epididymitis or prostatitis.
In rare cases, mycoplasma can affect the joints, causing symptoms of arthritis. Also, if a person does not pay attention to therapy, the development of autoimmune complications, pyelonephritis and other negative reactions is possible.
The decision on the need for therapy in each case is made individually.
The detection of mycoplasma in analyzes does not always indicate that it was this microorganism that caused inflammatory reactions that require correction.The patient needs to remember that any therapy can be used only after the diagnosis is confirmed. And for this you will have to undergo a full examination under medical supervision.
Read also Mycoplasma in men
Standard treatment for mycoplasmosis in men takes 7-14 days, but 15-25% of patients have persistent or recurring symptoms. For the period of taking the preparations and expressed symptoms, sports physical activity is excluded, renewal is allowed during the period of convalescence. The most common therapeutic measures for mycoplasmosis are:
- Etiotropic drugs. Drugs of choice may be tetracyclines, macrolides and fluoroquinolones. However, doxycycline is now recommended as a second and even third-line therapy, and there is also a growing resistance of mycoplasmas to azithromycin. The high effectiveness of the treatment of mycoplasmosis in men was observed with pristinamycin and moxifloxacin.
- Pathogenetic drugs. Painkillers, antispasmodics, anti-inflammatory drugs are used. In order to provoke a sluggish infection, local (rectal) immunostimulants are sometimes used. Intravenous detoxification with polyionic solutions is indicated in case of severe course, with complications.
- Symptomatic means. It is possible to use diuretics, desensitizing, hormonal agents. In some cases, topical application of antibiotic-containing ointments, courses of vitamin-mineral complexes is recommended.
Mycoplasmosis: ancillary treatment
Antibiotics are an integral part of the treatment of mycoplasmosis.
But to ensure the maximum chance of success, systemic antibiotic therapy must be supplemented with local procedures.
Practice shows that greater success can be achieved if you pay attention to inflammatory processes on the part of the male genital organs.
In other words, in addition to drinking antibiotics, it is also necessary to treat urethritis, prostatitis, epidymitis and orchitis.
As a rule, all these diseases in men suffering from mycoplasmosis are.
Good results are shown by the inclusion of enzymes in the scheme, especially in patients with long-standing mycoplasma infection.
Trypsin, lidase and other drugs in this category soften the resulting fibrotic changes, thereby increasing the activity of antibiotics and reducing the risk of relapse.
The principles of treatment in women
If mycoplasmosis develops in women, treatment is selected only by a doctor.
Dermatovenerologist, evaluates the results of the tests and the severity of symptoms, and then selects the optimal treatment regimen. First of all, antibiotics are selected for a woman.
Can be used for oral administration:
- Josamycin, applied 500 mg once every 24 hours for 3-5 days,
- Doxycycline, applied at 100 mg 1 time in 24 hours with a course of 3-5 days, etc.
Additionally, Trichopolum can be used in therapy. The drug acts not only on mycoplasma, but also on chlamydia, trichomonads and other pathogenic microorganisms that affect the female genital organs. It is better to use it in combination with other antibiotics to increase effectiveness.
The doctor may supplement the therapy with Metrogil, which is available in the form of a gel. The gel is applied to the genitals of a woman. This helps to quickly defeat pathogenic microorganisms located on the surface of the mucous membranes. The gel can be used not only in the treatment of women, but also in the treatment of men.
Representatives of the fair sex due to the peculiarity of the structure of the genitals, the appointment of suppositories with antibiotics is recommended.
Metronidazole, Gravagin may be used. These drugs quickly increase the local concentration of the antibacterial drug, which reduces the duration of therapy for the disease.
After treatment with antibiotics, women are recommended a course of restorative therapy with preparations containing lactic acid bacteria.
This is necessary so that the microflora of the vagina is restored faster and better.
Additionally, representatives of the fair sex are prescribed immunostimulants (Interferons, Viferon, etc.).
Their task is to strengthen their own immunity, which helps to quickly defeat the disease.
Vitamin complexes are also an essential part of therapy. Due to the structural features of the female genital organs, it is possible to use local antiseptics. Chlorhexidine, Miramistin are used.
With their help, the accessible mucous membranes are processed. To destroy those mycoplasmas that have not yet managed to penetrate into the deeper layers.
Thanks to local treatment, it is possible to prevent infection by other pathogenic microorganisms.
Local therapy and FTL
Treatment of manifest urethritis with mycoplasmosis in men is accompanied by regular irrigation of the head of the penis with anti-inflammatory solutions after each urination, using baths with infusions of oak bark, chamomile, calendula, and sage. The appointment and administration of herbal preparations (water-alcohol extracts of centaury grass, rosemary leaves, etc.) does not have convincing clinical efficacy in the treatment of mycoplasmosis.
Russian urologists widely practice local treatment with the introduction of antiseptic agents (collargol) into the urethra, as well as physiotherapy methods, such as:
- UHF therapy
- laser therapy of the posterior surface of the penis
- prostate massage
- ozone therapy
- intravenous laser blood irradiation (VLOK)
- urethra galvanotherapy
- heliotherapy and others.
A second course of antibiotic therapy is necessary for recurrent mycoplasmosis in men. Non-drug methods of treatment are also recommended, such as a special muscle training program to strengthen the pelvic floor, the use of cosmetic hypoallergenic products for daily intimate hygiene, a ban on prolonged hypostatic positions, and the exclusion of hours-long breaks between urinary acts.
Recommendations for men
If mycoplasma has developed in men, treatment is recommended to be started as soon as possible.
Representatives of the stronger sex are often diagnosed with an urogenital form of infection that has developed under the influence of a species of hominis or genitalium. Antibiotics dominate the treatment of the disease. Drugs in this group directly destroy the pathogen, that is, they affect the very cause of the disease, and not the symptoms.
They can be used, for example:
- Clarithromycin, used at 250 mg once a day for 3-5 days,
- Levofloxacin, which is drunk for three days, 250 mg once in 24 hours, etc.
Naturally, the representative of the stronger sex for oral administration will also use those antibacterial drugs that are used by women.
In addition to antibiotics, it is recommended to use:
- antifungal agents such as fluconazole to prevent the development of a fungal infection while using antibiotics,
- probiotic drugs that help the intestines recover from the negative effects of antibiotics,
- vitamin complexes
- immunostimulants that enhance the effect of antibiotics will help the body fight infection.
Simple rinsing will not help men because of the structural features of the genitals. Representatives of the stronger sex need to instill antiseptic solutions in the urethra. Procedures are carried out mainly in the conditions of a medical office, if necessary.
Naturally, the dosage of each medication and the duration of administration are selected by the doctor. In this case, the doctor takes into account the severity of the disease, symptoms, individual characteristics of the patient.
Treatment of urethritis with mycoplasma in men
Pathogens inseminate the urethra of men always and in the first place.
The basis for the treatment of urethritis is antibiotic therapy.
For greater effectiveness, instillations of drugs into the urethral lumen are prescribed.
In this way, antiseptics (miramistin, chlorhexidine), enzyme preparations are used.
The procedure is simple, carried out with a syringe and a thin tube, men can do it at home.
The number, multiplicity and preparations for instillations are prescribed by a dermatovenerologist.
He also carries out the first manipulation.
Some patients are shown the procedure of bougieurage.
This is when a thin, dense rod is inserted into the urethra to sharpen the process a little.
Make mycoplasmas and other pathogens exit the submucosal layer and make them more sensitive to treatment.
In case of treatment failure, mycoplasma urethritis returns after about 1.5-2 months.
Therefore, to confirm recovery, control smears and scrapings should be taken with a rhinestone at the end of the course of therapy and again after 6-8 weeks.
Forecast and Prevention
The prognosis for timely detection and treatment is favorable; there have been no fatal cases of mycoplasmosis in men. No specific protective pharmacological formulas have been developed; non-specific preventive measures are of great importance: refusal from any unprotected sexual practices, compliance with personal hygiene rules, a healthy lifestyle, and an annual laboratory preventive examination.
General principles of antibiotic use
Antibiotics are the main drugs used in the treatment of mycoplasmosis. You cannot get rid of the disease today without them. Since only these medicines act directly on the cause of the disease, destroying it.
Antibacterial drugs are serious medications that require careful use. When taking a course of therapy with their help, it is worth observing several rules.
- take only those antibiotics that are recommended by your doctor,
- strictly observe not only the dosage of the recommended drug, but also the duration of its use,
- refuse unauthorized use of antibacterial agents, as this can only aggravate the situation,
- for the period of antibiotic therapy, refuse sexual intercourse even with condoms,
- to undergo treatment not alone, but with a sexual partner (because if one partner gets rid of mycoplasmosis and the second does not, re-infection of a healthy person will become inevitable),
- It is strictly forbidden to independently change the dosage of the drug up or down, or stop using it ahead of time.
Read also Causes and symptoms of mycoplasmosis in women
If you do not forget about these basic rules when using antibiotic therapy, getting rid of mycoplasmosis becomes not so difficult.
Treatment of prostatitis with mycoplasma
The basis of the course are antibiotics with a preference for doxycycline.
But since the processes are usually long-standing, microbes have time to firmly nest in the small glands, of which the prostate gland consists.
In such loci, antibiotics are not particularly effective, you have to connect physiotherapeutic techniques (more on them below).
Almost all men need prostate massage.
The purpose of the procedure is to enhance blood circulation and the flow of immune cells to the tissue of the prostate gland.
Along the way, the same thing happens as with urethral bougieurage: foci with mycoplasmas become more accessible to drugs.
Alternatively, sometimes instillation massage is prescribed.
That is, a combination of instillation in the urethra of antimicrobial or anti-inflammatory compounds with parallel light massaging of the prostate.
This allows drugs to penetrate the prostate gland and bladder, significantly increasing the effectiveness of therapy for mycoplasmosis.
The use of drugs in children
Mycoplasma treatment in children is also carried out using antibacterial drugs. True, doctors note that children practically do not have an urogenital form of infection. More often they are diagnosed with mycoplasma, which causes negative reactions in the bronchopulmonary system.
For correction apply:
- antibiotics (preference is given to Azithromycin, as the safest means, but in severe forms, the use of Tetracycline, Erythromycin, etc.),
- drugs with an antipyretic effect (Paracetamol is preferred, since if you do not exceed the recommended dosages, this drug is recognized as the safest),
- preparations with an expectorant effect (for example, omnitus),
- immunostimulating agents (echinacea, interferons, etc.).
Among children, young girls have a higher risk of contracting urogenital mycoplasmosis from a sick mother.
This is explained by the structural features of their genitourinary system. If it was not possible to prevent infection of the child with the urogenital form of infection, mandatory medical monitoring of treatment is necessary.
The principles of therapy are the same.
They use antibacterial agents, immunomodulators, local treatment of the genitals, and vitamin complexes. In children, the risk of developing complications is higher than in adults. Therefore, only a doctor should choose specific drugs, as well as the duration of their use and dosage.
When a man is at risk of contracting mycoplasma
- Is ureaplasma or mycoplasma transmitted from man to woman through intimacy?
- The main routes of infection are unprotected sex.
- It does not matter what kind of sexual relationship was practiced.
- Mycoplasmosis infection is possible with vaginal, anal and oral contact.
- In addition, the likelihood of infection with mycoplasma and other STIs during a single sex also remains high.
- Mycoplasmosis infection has also been reported during organ transplantation.
- However, this phenomenon is very rare.
The transmission of Mycoplasma hominis / genitalium by the contact-household route (in the pool, from the wall in the locker room or public toilet, etc.) has not yet been proven.
Therefore, it is considered impossible.
Some data indicate that M. genitalium and U. urealyticum are provoking factors in the development of non-gonococcal urethritis.
- Often present in patients with other urogenital infections.
- For example, vaginitis, cervicitis, pyelonephritis, pelvic inflammatory disease.
- And some neurogenic infections.
- But there is no direct evidence that they are the cause of these diseases.
Sexual gland lesions with mycoplasma in men
Mycoplasmas take root quite well on the epithelium of the epididymis and the secretory cells themselves.
As a rule, processes are combined - orchoepididymitis.
Isolated orchitis (testicular inflammation) is rare, and is an option for treatment failure.
There are no special requirements for the names of drugs.
But if mycoplasmas have led to the development of orchitis or orchoepididymitis, then this variant of the disease is considered complicated.
Individual treatment is required and with a longer period than usual.
What is the role of mycoplasma infection of the prostate (pancreas) and in the development of prostate cancer (PCa)?
One of the most common etiological agents of infection of the male reproductive system are mycoplasmas. To determine the role of mycoplasmas in the development of prostate cancer, a study was conducted of 250 men with suspected prostate cancer (PCa). In this regard, all patients underwent pancreatic biopsy under ultrasound guidance.In addition to the main columns of prostate tissue heading for morphological examination, two additional lobes were taken from the peripheral zone to search for mycoplasmas in them.
In 127 patients, the study of prostate tissue for the presence of mycoplasmas was performed by the standard method of qualitative PCR analysis. Subsequently, to obtain more accurate results, Mycoplasma hominis DNA was determined by 123 patients with suspected prostate cancer using the quantitative diagnostic method of Real-time PCR. Thus, according to the results of the study, it was found that mycoplasma infection of the prostate is more common in patients with IDU BC and prostate cancer. The fact of the presence, persistence and damaging effect of this infection in the tissue of the peripheral zone of the prostate gland has been established, which has not been previously established and has been questioned.
Help for pregnant
Mycoplasmosis is a disease to which doctors specializing in obstetrics and gynecology are ambiguous.
The fact is that the infection is perceived as conditionally dangerous for a woman during pregnancy. However, there is not a single confirmed case of the influence of mycoplasma directly on the development of the fetus.
Although, of course, the inflammatory process in the genitals adversely affects the processes of gestation.
The attitude to the need for treatment is also ambiguous. If a pregnant woman suffers from symptoms of mycoplasmosis, therapy is mandatory. Includes antibacterial agents. Preference is given to drugs from the macrolide group (for example, erythromycin).
The funds of this group are drunk in a short course and have a minimum of negative effects on the fetus during pregnancy. However, even with the use of erythromycin, therapy is prescribed no earlier than at 12 weeks of gestation.
In addition to antibiotics, the use of immunomodulators, biological additives with vitamins to increase the effectiveness of therapy is indicated.
If the pregnant woman complies with medical recommendations, it is possible to achieve a complete cure with a minimal risk of relapse.
Clinical signs of mycoplasmosis in men
- Mycoplasma is not always accompanied by a pronounced clinical picture.
- Often it is asymptomatic or does not provoke an inflammatory reaction at all if the immune system is functioning well enough.
- However, with the development of clinical signs, mycoplasma in men will be more acute than in female patients.
- A characteristic feature of mycoplasma hominis in men is the lack of their own, unique symptoms.
- Depending on the location of the microorganism, inflammation can affect the following structures:
- urethral canal
- the inner shell of the testicles,
- epididymis (epididymis),
- vas deferens
- prostatic tissue.
In addition, mycoplasmosis can provoke inflammatory reactions in the joint tissue.
Mycoplasmosis and joint problems
The fact that mycoplasmas can provoke arthritis is contested by some.
However, most clinicians consider this statement to be proven.
Since arthritis most often begins with the lower limbs, sick men have difficulty walking.
Inflammation of the joints is provoked both by the entry of mycoplasmas into the joint cavity with blood flow, and through immune mechanisms.
Therefore, antibiotics are necessary, in addition, anti-inflammatory, hormonal drugs, and in severe cases, cytostatics.
It even happens that joint problems continue even the complete cure of mycoplasmosis.
Symptoms and signs
Like many sexually transmitted infections, mycoplasma has a "quiet" course and for quite a long time may not be felt at all.
When a person’s immune state weakens (under stress, respiratory illness, etc.), the patient may observe the following symptoms of the disease:
- Weakness and disability,
- Discomfort and discomfort during intercourse,
- Soreness and burning sensation, pain during urination,
- Frequent urination, false urination,
- Pain in the perineum and lower back,
- Urethra redness,
- The appearance of a yellowish, transparent, vitreous discharge from the urethra,
- Morning discomfort in the groin and pain in the lower abdomen. Pain in the groin, perineum, testicles of a pulling, aching character,
- A characteristic rash in the genital area,
- Redness and swelling of the urethral sponges, as well as their clumping in the morning,
- Genital itching.
Moreover, if mycoplasma damage occurred a long time ago, then these pathogens can reach the prostate gland of a man and cause its inflammation. This in turn will lead to prostatitis. Less commonly observed is inflammation of the testicle and its edema.
It is difficult to diagnose mycoplasma by external signs, an accurate diagnosis can be made only after PCR. Nevertheless, the discharge with urogenital mycoplasmosis may look like this:
The following symptoms are characteristic of respiratory mycoplasmosis in the stronger sex:
- a sore throat,
- painful dry unproductive cough, gradually turning into wet,
- a slight increase in lymph nodes,
- hyperemia of the palatine arches, tonsils, pharyngeal mucosa,
- signs of intoxication (chills, joint and muscle pain, fever, dizziness, headaches, fever).
In 40% of cases Mycoplasmosis in men is asymptomatic. The erased or latent form of the disease is the most dangerous, since in such situations it is almost impossible to detect pathology in time and start treatment on time.
When the above symptoms appear, a person is recommended to contact such specialists as a urologist and venereologist as soon as possible. The success of further treatment will largely depend on the degree of neglect of the disease.
In order to correctly evaluate the results of treatment, it will be necessary to re-take tests.
The fact is that the absence of symptoms of inflammation does not mean that the inflammatory process has stopped. And the number of microorganisms has returned to an acceptable framework.
The goal of treatment is not to destroy the conditionally pathogenic microorganism completely, but to stop the inflammation. If, according to the results of the tests, the amount of the microorganism returned to normal, but the patient still complains of symptoms, therapy should be continued. If the symptoms have disappeared, and the amount of mycoplasma has become normal, therapy may be discontinued. It is believed that the disease is defeated.
In European standards, a recommendation is made that conducting control tests is 30 days after the end of therapy. Moreover, it is recommended to give preference not to ELISA, but to polymerase chain reaction with the control of the number of bacteria.
If the therapy is ineffective, the doctor can go two ways. The course of application of the selected antibiotic increases (up to a maximum of 7 days). Or an alternative drug is selected that can rid a person of a pathogenic microorganism. In 95% of cases, this is enough to achieve recovery.
Mycoplasmosis is an unpleasant disease that can cause a number of complications, if ignored.
The onset of symptoms of an ailment is an occasion to visit a doctor and get treatment recommendations!
Urethritis on the background of mycoplasmosis
- Inflammation of the urethra against the background of mycoplasma is most common.
- Mycoplasma genitalium causes non-gonococcal urethritis in men, and in women, as a rule, is the cause of cervicitis.
- sensation of itching, burning in the urethra,
- the presence of secretions that are serous in nature (transparent, often without pathological impurities),
- rapid urination, dysuria,
- soreness during sexual intercourse (increased pain can be observed with ejaculation).
- there may be signs and symptomatic manifestations of inflammation of the bladder (cystitis).
Diagnosis of mycoplasma inflammation of the urethra is possible only on the basis of the presence of mycoplasma and the absence of other pathogens in the male urogenital tract.
Physiotherapy for mycoplasmosis
Such a component can be dispensed with only in the treatment of fresh, uncomplicated forms of mycoplasmosis.
But if prostatitis, orchitis and / or orchoepididymitis are noted, then physiotherapy is indispensable.
Procedures are prescribed only after the abatement of acute inflammatory phenomena.
It should be prepared for the fact that after the first sessions there will be signs of exacerbation of inflammation.
This is not always, but it happens.
There are a lot of techniques.
For urethritis, instillations of ozone-enriched mixtures, bougienage and massage of the urethra on a bougie are used.
For the treatment of prostatitis and orchoepidimitis are used:
- drug electrophoresis
- low frequency currents with inductothermy,
- rectal insufflation of ozone-enriched solutions into the rectum,
- ultrasound therapy, including with rectal emitters,
- laser therapy
- transurethral radio wave hyperthermia,
and many others, the choice of specific is determined by the capabilities of the clinic.
How to treat mycoplasmosis in men: drugs and treatment regimens of mycoplasma (hominis, genitalium)
When diagnosing mycoplasmosis in men, treatment should be based, first of all, on the analysis of the resistance of the pathogenic strain of the plasma microorganism hominis or genitalium. And also not the physiological manifestations of the disease, for example, urethral translucent discharge, pulling pain in the groin, burning and sharp pain when urinating, and a general increase in body temperature. The primary stage of lesion with ureaplasma genitalium can easily be mistaken for chronic urethritis. Affecting the prostate gland, mycoplasmosis hominis causes inflammation of the prostate, and when the pathogen is dislocated, the genitalium in the epididymis - sharp pains, redness of the scrotum and enlargement of the appendage occur. If mycoplasma in men is not treated with modern antibiotic regimens, then subsequently this will inevitably lead to urethritis and irreversible changes in sperm. A pathogen of the hominis type can provoke balanoposthitis in men.
Epididymitis on the background of mycoplasmosis
- Epididymitis is an inflammation of the epididymis (epididymis), which is the organ that connects the testis to the spermatic canal.
- The inflammatory process may initially be accompanied by fever, a feeling of heaviness in the scrotum and its soreness on palpation.
- Other symptoms of inflammation of the epididymis may include:
- Weakness, tiredness.
- Hemospermia (an admixture of blood in the ejaculate).
- Discomfort in the pelvis and abdomen.
- Pain in the groin (often aching).
- Painful ejaculation.
- Rapid urination.
Complications of epididymitis on the background of mycoplasma can cause the following pathological conditions in men:
- Hydrocele (dropsy of the testicle). It is characterized by an accumulation of serous exudate.
- Abscess of the testis. It is a consequence of acute epididymitis, sometimes it requires surgical treatment.
- Transition of epididymitis to a chronic state.
- Deterioration of ejaculate quality, possible infertility.
Epididymitis is usually completely cured within 3-4 weeks, without any negative effect on the reproductive ability of the patient.
Mycoplasmal inflammation of the prostate (prostatitis)
- Prostatitis - A term used to describe inflammation of the prostate gland.
- A common disease with mycoplasmosis that occurs in men of all ages.
- There are various types of prostatitis that can develop against the background of the bacteria Musplasm and Ureaplasma:
- Acute bacterial prostatitis.
- Chronic bacterial prostatitis.
- Asymptomatic inflammatory prostatitis.
- Acute bacterial prostatitis is accompanied by a pronounced infectious and inflammatory process.
- The patient complains of painful and frequent urination, pain in the pelvis and lower back, discomfort, heaviness in the groin, weakness, and fatigue.
- Chronic bacterial prostatitis is associated with long-term mycoplasmosis.
- Often a man complains of such symptoms:
- A feeling of tension or heaviness in the perineum (the area between the testicles and the anus).
- Increased urination frequency.
- Sensation of incomplete emptying of the bladder.
- The appearance of dysuria (difficulty urinating).
- Burning, itching when urinating.
- Pain in the testis and groin.
- Erectile Disorders.
- Dyspareunia (pain during sex).
- Premature or even painful ejaculation.
- Asymptomatic inflammatory prostatitis caused by mycoplasma proceeds without a pronounced clinical picture.
- Symptoms are often blurry or completely absent.
- The disease is usually diagnosed by chance when a prostate biopsy is performed for another reason.
- The etiology of this phenomenon has not yet been fully elucidated.
- Experts note that prostatitis caused by the bacteria Musplasma is difficult to treat and can provoke infertility or potency.
Mycoplasma analysis in men
When diagnosing mycoplasmas of the hominis and genitalium types, the following laboratory tests are used:
- Polymerase chain reaction or PCR analysis is a method of repeated enzymatic reproduction of a specific DNA and RNA region, and only the region that is of immediate interest for analysis is cloned. Analysis of bacteriological culture from the urethral passages is an artificial cultivation of a pathogenic microorganism in a specific nutrient medium. The result of this analysis is the determination of the quantitative characteristics of the strain, its sensitivity to drugs. Serological analysis or ELISA - a laboratory test to determine antibodies and antigens. Such an analysis can reflect two characteristics - the quality and quantity of glycoproteins. Comprehensive analysis to identify concomitant trichomonads, chlamydia, gonococci, genital herpes, gardnerella and human papillomavirus.
If the disease is caused by mycoplasma hominis, then in men, treatment is prescribed according to the principle of a treatment regimen for gardnerelosis.
And if the disease is due to mycoplasma genitalium, then treatment in men is prescribed according to the drug regimen for ureaplasmosis. But these principles only work to eliminate mild forms of mycoplasmosis.
A complicated or chronic course will require a more aggressive and long-term treatment with individual drug complexes.
It is not possible to cure the disease with folk remedies, since their effect is mainly aimed only at concomitant painful complications, for example, urethritis. To alleviate the condition, you can use washing with infusions and medicinal decoctions of such herbs: meadowsweet, cornflower, calendula, St. John's wort and chamomile.
Symptoms of the disease can disappear spontaneously, but this does not indicate a complete recovery and disappearance of the pathogen from the body. This happens quite often, but only repeated studies can fully confirm full recovery.
Treatment of mycoplasma hominis in men drugs scheme
Where does this disease come from:
- Weakening of the body's natural protective functions, Contact with an infected woman, Concomitant gynecological diseases, Systematic hypothermia of the body.
When the immune system weakens, microbes attack the body of a man, they begin to multiply actively as a result of which infection occurs. In this case, the symptoms of mycoplasma in men can be disturbed by periods, either increasing or decreasing their intensity.
Unprotected intercourse with a woman who is a carrier of mycoplasmosis can lead to infection. In this case, infection does not occur immediately, but after a few weeks.
Mycoplasma hominis in men is often manifested against other sexually transmitted diseases, for example, along with gonorrhea or chlamydia. In this case, it is very difficult to diagnose the disease, since it proceeds in a latent form, and its symptoms are mild.
Frequent colds and the constant presence of a man in the cold negatively affects the health of his reproductive system. Frequent hypothermia leads to a decrease in immunity and can also cause mycoplasmosis in menwhose treatment should not be postponed.
A child can also become infected by passing through the birth canal. In the event that the mother is a carrier of infection, the baby may become infected during the natural process of childbirth. Pathogenic bacteria can cause meningitis and pneumonia in the newborn.
Harmful effects on the male body
Today, male organisms are exposed not only to harmful environmental influences, but also to many other factors that reduce the body's immunity and affect it in general. Many modern men use tobacco and alcohol, thereby unknowingly destroying their immune system.
In addition, they completely impair the functionality of their sexual function, due to which the level of sperm motility decreases, and reproductive functions fade to almost zero. Thanks to this, various chronic diseases develop, among which mycoplasma in men is very common.
The first symptoms of mycoplasma hominis in men
The disease often proceeds without visible symptoms, this makes it difficult to diagnose it. The presence of concomitant infections can confuse the doctor and make a biased diagnosis to the patient.
But in most cases, the symptoms of mycoplasma in men are manifested by the following unpleasant factors:
Pain or burning at the end of urination. The appearance of mucous discharge from the urethra in the morning. Discomfort during intercourse. Swollen lymph nodes. Groin pain.
Signs of the disease do not appear immediately, they begin to bother the man after the incubation period, until this time mycoplasmosis in men proceeds without any symptoms and he does not suspect that he is a carrier of the infection.
In the advanced stage, the disease can lead to infertility, it reduces the quality and quantity of sperm. If, with the onset of symptoms of mycoplasma in men, treatment is not done on time, then this can lead to prostatitis, orchitis and cystitis.
The concept of mycoplasmosis in men
Mycoplasmosis in men is considered one of many viruses that are transmitted sexually. Its increased resistance is quite large, so it is almost impossible to cure such a disease.
The situation is aggravated by the fact that conditionally such bacteria are found in approximately every second male organism, and often without even showing any characteristic signs (latent form or hominis).
When the immune system is slightly vigilant, these small bacteria begin the process of damage to body cells by suppressing very important components.
During this time, mycoplasmas quite successfully spread to other organs, thereby affecting them with their large area of distribution.
The first affects the genital and urethra, as various fungal and other infections accumulate on the mucous membranes of the genitals very successfully.
Upon contact with an infected woman, symptoms of an unpleasant disease do not appear immediately. The incubation period is from one to five weeks. A disease can make itself felt earlier if it arose not because of unprotected sexual intercourse, but as a result of a weakened immune system.
In such a situation, the signs of the disease are pronounced, they can occur for no apparent reason and spontaneously disappear. This does not mean that the disease has receded; rather, it has turned into a chronic form.
How to take an analysis of mycoplasmosis in men
There is no special analysis for mycoplasma in men, and there is no definition of any norm, but it is enough for a qualified doctor to take a smear on the microflora in order to determine the presence of pathogenic flora in the body. Also, the diagnosis is made on the basis of the following procedures:
- Blood test for RIF, PCR, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.
- All these studies will help in a short time to make a correct diagnosis for the patient and determine whether he has concomitant diseases, against which mycoplasmosis can develop in men and how to treat it.
- Also, another analysis is used to treat the disease, it reveals the sensitivity of microorganisms to antibiotics and helps to effectively influence mycoplasmas with medications.
Preparations for the treatment of mycoplasmosis in men
Naturally, the specialist chooses the necessary funds for the treatment of mycoplasmosis after diagnosis and diagnosis. Mycoplasmas, for example, are insensitive to the penicillin group of antibiotics, therefore they can not be used in the treatment of the disease, they will not give the desired effect.
The following drugs are considered the most effective means for treating the disease:
You should not start treatment of mycoplasma of the genitals in men on their own - this can lead to unexpected complications and cause a relapse of the disease.
The course of treatment with medicines lasts from 3 to 7 weeks, after carried out additional diagnostics.
It doesn’t matter according to what scheme the treatment of mycoplasmosis in a man The course of therapy is prescribed to the sexual partner.
For the duration of therapy, it is necessary to exclude the intake of alcohol and follow a diet that will increase the effectiveness of drug therapy. It is also recommended to observe sexual abstinence, at least for a while.
What experts say about the disease:
Http: // www. zppp. saharniy-diabet. com / mikoplazma-mikoplazmoz / cheloveka / u-muzhchin2 / lechenie4
Http: // venerolog-ginekolog. com / venereology / bolezni / mikoplazmoz-u-muzhchin-kakimi-preparatami-lechitsya. html
How to treat mycoplasma in men?
Mycoplasmosis is a viral pathological disease of the genitourinary system. The pathogenesis and clinic are not yet fully understood, and therefore there are some disagreements between scientists around the world in the study of this disease. Some argue that mycoplasmosis can provoke complex clinical diseases, while others consider the manifestations of mycoplasmosis as a consequence of reduced immunity, against which there are problems with the genitourinary system, including. Therapy is based on antiviral, immunostimulating and antibacterial effects.
Statistics show that mycoplasmosis in men is extremely rare. Most often, such a disease affects women. However, it is the man who is the carrier of this virus, which is transmitted through sexual contact.
Mycoplasma genitalia, pneumonia, hominis - these viruses can cause disruption of the genitourinary system.
In total, there are 11 types of mycoplasmas in the human body, but only the above can cause harm. The disease manifests itself in the form of weak discharge from the urethra.
Untimely treatment can provoke secondary accession of the infection, as well as damage to the external genital organs and prostate.
Symptoms of treatment of mycoplasmosis in men
Signs of mycoplasmosis in men are manifested in the form of periodic aching pain in the groin, as well as weak discharge from the urethra. To identify the virus, you must go through a series of medical studies. Even without visible symptoms, it is worthwhile to conduct a blood test for the presence of antibodies to the pathogen.
Mycoplasmosis often develops in a latent form. Stressful situations, a decrease in the body's defenses, hard physical labor, and additional infectious diseases can activate the pathogen. Possible symptoms:
- Transparent discharge from the urethra with a mixture of yellow compounds, in most cases in the morning,
- Aching pain in the inguinal zone
- Perineal itching
- Testicular enlargement, slight swelling,
- Impaired spermatogenesis,
- Burning sensation during urination.
In the absence of treatment, the disease can develop into a chronic form, which leads to more complex diseases in the form of pyelonephritis, prostatitis, and changes in sperm quality.
How to treat mycoplasmosis in men?
Drugs for eliminating mycoplasmosis are a group of antibiotics and a restorative antibacterial complex. Therapy consists of several stages:
- Taking antibiotics for 10 days,
- Then urinary tract irrigation with liquid antiseptics sensitive to mycoplasmas,
- Reception of probiotics and antifungal drugs.
The treatment regimen for mycoplasmosis in men
How to treat mycoplasmosis in men on their own? You can use the methods of home self-medication with alternative drugs, but very often such methods have only a temporary result, exacerbating the patient's condition.
It is worthwhile to understand that if, in the absence of manifestations of mycoplasmosis, you can do with local antifungal drugs, then for a complete cure and eliminate the symptoms of the disease, it is worth taking a full course. Independently choose antibiotics is harmful to your health!
Commonly used drugs are:
- Antibiotics: tetracycline group, midecamecin, erythromycin, josamycin, sumamed, azithromycin,
- Antifungal drugs: Oflosaktsin, Terzhinan,
- Immunostimulants: tincture of ginseng and echinacea, Methyluracil, Timalin, T-activin,
- For local exposure and elimination of pain symptoms: Miramistin, Chlogrexedin.
The treatment regimen for mycoplasmosis is determined by the doctor, based on the degree of localization of the disease, symptoms and pathogenesis, as well as the individual characteristics of the patient (weight, presence of concomitant diseases).
Treatment regimens for mycoplasmosis in men
The types of pathogens - hominis, genitalia, pneumo - differ in properties, but are treated equally.
All antibiotic presenters:
Doxycycline - a semi-synthetic bacteriostatic agent from the group of tetracyclines. Penetrates into the cell and inhibits protein synthesis necessary for the microorganism. Does not affect bowel function. The daily dosage is 100 mg 2 times. Duration of admission is 10 days.
Clarithromycin - macrolide antibacterial drug. Affects bacteria located inside and outside the cell. It binds to a microorganism and disrupts the formation of protein. Amount per day - 250 mg twice. The course of treatment is 1-2 weeks.
Josamycin - bactericidal action is aimed at destroying the membrane of gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria and fungi. Morning intake - 1 gram, at lunch and in the evening, 500 mg. Duration of admission is 10 days.
Levofloxacin - antimicrobial fluoroquinolone, which blocks the DNA of the pathogen, violates the structure of the cytoplasm and the cell membrane of the microorganism. Take once a day, 250 mg. Continue treatment for 3 to 10 days. The dosage for the chronic form of bacterial prostatitis increases to 0.5 grams 1-2 times a day. The course of treatment is 3 months.
Azithromycin - 1 g once or 0.5 g 1 time per day, course 3-5 days. The drug is taken 1 hour before meals or 2 hours after.
Clindamycin - 200-400 mg every 6 hours, course 7 days. - Erythromycin 500 mg 4 times a day, course 10-14 days. - Ofloxacin 200-400 mg once.
In order to cure mycoplasmosis, it is necessary to abandon sexual relations, take means to strengthen immunity, B vitamins and ascorbic acid, which cleanse the intestines sorbents. It is important to follow a diet and exclude smoked and fatty meats, spicy and spicy dishes from the diet, alcohol is strictly prohibited.
Unfortunately, due to mild symptoms, mycoplasmosis is detected in an already rather neglected state, when the disease caused complications. For this reason, the above diseases are not uncommon and, along with mycoplasmosis, a man needs to treat other diseases of the kidneys or reproductive system.
You can add drugs based on natural immunomodulators:
- Echinacea purpurea,
PCR cure is monitored in patients one month after a course of treatment. Treatment of mycoplasmosis in men is considered effective if the number of mycoplasmas remains within normal limits for 4 weeks.
If studies have shown the presence of mycoplasmas or ureaplasmas, a new culture is carried out on the IST medium to determine the sensitivity of microorganisms to antibiotics. After this, a second course of therapy is prescribed using an antibacterial drug from another group.
Mycoplasma treatment in men: drugs and scheme
Mycoplasma, ureaplasma, gardnerella - the treatment of these pathologies in men requires an integrated approach. It is important to understand that mycoplasma hominis in men after infection remains in the body for life. Therefore, the main goal of treatment is to reduce the activity of bacteria and reduce the concentration of microorganisms to standard values.
Treatment of mycoplasma genitalia in men is based on taking antibiotics. Moreover, the type of drug depends on the type of infection. The treatment regimen for mycoplasma in men may include additional drugs if concomitant infections are detected (chlamydia, candidiasis, gonorrhea).
Ureaplasma, mycoplasma, gardnerella - the treatment regimen for these diseases in men includes such drugs:
- Antibiotics. Cephalosparins, tetracyclines, fluoroquinolones are effective in the treatment of the disease. In most cases, tetracycline drugs are prescribed. They differ in minimal side effects and the best pharmacological properties. If necessary, conduct a test for sensitivity to antibiotics by express systems. Testing allows you to choose the most effective drug for the treatment of a specific infection.
- Local antiseptics. Chlorhexidine, miramistin, etc. belong to this category of drugs. Drugs disinfect the external surface and mucous membranes of the genitals. Redness, itching, burning subside, unpleasant symptoms become less pronounced. An antiseptic solution prevents the attachment of a secondary infection through the inflamed sections of the mucous membranes.
- Probiotics. Patients can be prescribed linex, acipol, hilak forte, etc. The period of the disease and antibiotic therapy adversely affect the beneficial microflora of the intestine and genital tract. To prevent dysbiosis of the genital and intestinal microflora, the doctor prescribes probiotic complexes. Restoring normal microflora is one of the main tasks of treatment.
- Vitamins and Immunostimulants. The pharmaceutical industry produces a wide range of such drugs. Medicines of this group strengthen the body's immune system, increase strength to fight infection. The intake of vitamins and artificial interferon strengthens blood vessels, normalizes the metabolism of trace elements, activates physical activity. This contributes to the rapid recovery, prevention of relapse.
The specific treatment regimen is compiled individually and depends on the stage of the disease:
- Subacute stage. At this stage of the disease, antibiotic therapy is carried out, antiseptics for topical application.
- The acute stage.This stage is often accompanied by concomitant infection. Therefore, in addition to antibiotics, drugs are prescribed for stopping a secondary infection (for example, antifungal drugs). To prescribe a specific tool, preliminary diagnostics by the PCR method is preliminarily carried out.
- Chronic stage. If the infection process has turned into a chronic (sluggish) form, an integrated approach to treatment is required. In this case, antibiotic therapy is accompanied by the use of probiotics, immunomodulators, vitamins, and the use of local antiseptics.
Physiotherapy for mycoplasmosis is successfully used to strengthen the body's natural forces. UHF-therapy, electrophoresis, ultrasonic waves have a beneficial effect on the condition of the male body.
Point exposure contributes to the normalization of blood circulation, metabolism, activates cell regeneration.
They usually go on to physiotherapeutic procedures after eliminating the acute symptoms of the disease.
The choice of specific drugs and dosage depends on the results of laboratory tests and the patient’s health status. Only a doctor can adequately assess these indicators. Therefore, the independent treatment of mycoplasmosis can be dangerous to health by the development of a secondary infection, intoxication and overdose.
What physiotherapy techniques are used to treat ureaplasmosis and its complications?
- Laser therapy. Depending on the irradiation technique, stable and labile methods of laser therapy are distinguished. A stable technique is carried out without moving the emitter, which is in a fixed (often contact) position throughout the procedure. In a labile technique, the emitter is arbitrarily moved along the fields into which the irradiated zone is divided (field irradiation). Apply a transurethral effect on the urethra with an urethral nozzle. Perhaps a general effect on the sinocarotid zones, projections of the liver, perineum, coccyx, suprapubic region. Low-intensity laser radiation has a pronounced anti-inflammatory effect, stimulates general and local immunity, improves microcirculation in the focus of inflammation, acts on the permeability of the vascular wall, has an analgesic effect,
- Extracorporeal hemocorrection. The modern method of purifying the blood composition outside the patient’s body with its subsequent return. The essence of the procedure is based on the removal of inflammatory mediators, cell breakdown products, toxins, removal of cholesterol, antibodies and antigens from the connective tissue, restoration of the natural blood microcirculation.
- Often used thermotherapy: transurethral or transrectal microwave thermotherapy or hyperthermia. Surface heating of the mucous membrane of the urethra and prostate gland to a depth of not more than 5 mm is required in order to sanitize the urogenital tract or provide better conditions for subsequent local drug therapy. Warming up is required with a smooth rise in temperature from 39 to 45 ° С and its automatic control directly in the urethra or rectum. With urethritis and prostatitis, urethral and rectal heating are simultaneously used against the background of exposure to a traveling magnetic field. A combination of urethral heating with laser therapy and electrophoresis in ureaplasmosis is possible. This opportunity allows you to optimize the impact and reduce treatment time with a maximum percentage of favorable outcomes, even in advanced cases. As a result of treatment, in patients with prostatitis, the pain and swelling of the prostate disappear, the secretion of the gland decreases the number of leukocytes, the number of lecithin grains increases, the linear blood flow velocity improves,
- Using magnetotherapy, you can act on the problem area or introduce drugs using magnetic fields into the lesion. Efficiency is doubtful. The Intramag device is intended for the treatment of inflammatory diseases of the urogenital sphere in men and women, including urogenital infection using a traveling magnetic field in combination with local drug therapy. The therapeutic properties are based on the pronounced anti-inflammatory, decongestant, analgesic and phoretic effects of the traveling magnetic field excited in the emitter, as well as on the possibility of local drug therapy with simultaneous heating. In addition to the intraurethral effect of the drug, a rectal effect is possible with a special rectal catheter-irrigator, which, like the urethral one, can combine magnetophoresis with electrophoresis,
- Electrophoresis - This is a physiotherapy method that is used in this case with chronic inflammation of the urethra, female genital organs. Electrophoresis is achieved not only the therapeutic effect determined by the drug administered, but also the stimulation of skin capillaries, metabolism, a pronounced analgesic effect, a pronounced effect of eliminating the inflammatory-edematous process, improving tissue nutrition and regeneration ability not only at the skin level, but also in the deep layers, micromassage of tissues is carried out. The advantages of drug electrophoresis are: the ability to create a skin depot with medicines, the possibility of painless administration to any place, the creation of a high concentration of the substance in the pathological focus, the administration of the drug in ionic form, which allows to reduce the dose, direct current increases tissue sensitivity to the drug. Widely used drug electrophoresis of the abdominal organs: vagina, rectum, urethra. Using electrophoresis, various antibiotics, microelements, and enzymes are introduced, both by general methods and locally. Well-proven galvanic mud therapy,
- the effect ozotherapy achieved by autohemotherapy with ozone, rectal insufflations with an ozone-oxygen mixture and the use of ozone irrigation in overalls connected to an ozonizer. The therapeutic effects of ozone are based on the known mechanisms of its biological action. With the external use of high concentrations of ozone, its high oxidizing potential provides a bactericidal, fungicidal and virusocidal effect against the main types of gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, viruses, fungi, as well as a number of pathogenic protozoa. The effect of parenteral administration of ozone in pathologies accompanied by hypoxic disorders is based on the activation of oxygen-dependent processes. Ozonides formed as a result of ozonolysis of unsaturated fatty acids improve the state of cell membranes, provide intensification of enzyme systems and thereby enhance the metabolic processes of energy substrate production. The immunomodulatory effect of ozone allows you to gently correct immunodeficiencies, a decrease in blood viscosity leads to an improvement in microcirculation and gas exchange at the tissue level,
- To increase immunity, intravenous laser blood irradiation is used (Vlok), it is the most effective and universal laser therapy technique. Unlike local laser therapy procedures, the therapeutic effect is due to the activation of systemic therapeutic mechanisms of the whole organism, increasing the efficiency of the functioning of the blood supply systems, the immune system, other organs and systems, as well as the whole organism. VLOK is used as an analgesic, antioxidant, desensitizing, biostimulating, immunostimulating, immunocorrecting, detoxifying, vasodilating, antiarrhythmic, antibacterial, antihypoxic, decongestant and anti-edematous.
Mycoplasma hominis in men: treatment in pairs
Sometimes repeated tests after antibiotic treatment show consistently high mycoplasma titers. This situation usually occurs if the patient’s sexual partner is a carrier of mycoplasma.
Carriage of bacteria does not require treatment. However, if this interferes with stopping inflammation from a partner, you need to undergo therapy in pairs.
At the same time, throughout the course of therapy, you need to refrain from sexual intercourse, especially without barrier contraception.
Pair treatment of mycoplasma in men and women is indicated in such situations:
- in preparation for conception (a bacterium can cause miscarriage, developmental abnormalities, birth complications),
- when mycoplasma is recognized as the likely cause of infertility in a couple,
- when mycoplasma infection is detected in various pathologies of pregnancy,
- if the bacterium has caused chronic inflammation of the genitourinary system.
Often, sexual partners ignore the weak manifestations of the disease and do not rush to the doctor. At this time, bacteria multiply actively, affecting more and more healthy tissue. The larger the site of the inflammatory lesion, the higher the risk of complications. In men, ignoring mycoplasmosis is dangerous for development:
- chronic prostatitis
Chronic inflammation negatively affects spermatogenesis. As a result, sperm production and their activity are reduced. Male infertility is the most severe consequence of mycoplasma infection.
Mycoplasma genitalium is a sexually transmitted infection. Avoiding infection is easier than regularly treating an exacerbation of the inflammatory process and suffering from unpleasant manifestations.
Simple rules of personal hygiene and barrier contraception will help maintain sexual health, avoid infection with mycoplasma.
If the infection did occur, the doctors of the modern Diana clinic in St. Petersburg will provide professional medical care.
ONLINE RECORDING to the DIANA clinic You can register by the free telephone number 8-800-707-15-60 or fill out the contact form. In this case, we will contact you ourselves.
What do we know about the importance of ureaplasma urealitikum and mycoplasma hominis?
- Ureaplasma urealyticum and Mycoplasma hominis are microorganisms whose pathogenic properties are realized only under certain conditions,
- U.urealiticum and M.hominis are opportunistic microorganisms found in 10-50% of practically healthy individuals of reproductive age,
- Under certain conditions, they can cause infectious and inflammatory processes of the genitourinary organs, often in association with other pathogens (for example, chlamydia),
- Antibacterial therapy for these infections is indicated in the presence of clinical symptoms and the release of pathogens in an amount of> 104 CFU / ml3.
- Mycoplasma genitalium - a pathogenic microorganism that can cause urethritis, cervicitis, inflammatory diseases of the pelvic organs,
- M.genitalium - the leading causative agent of non-chronic urethritis in men,
- M.genitalium often causes acute urethritis in men, but there are also low-symptom recurrent or asymptomatic forms,
- It is established that M.genitalium is the cause of mucopurulent inflammation of the cervix in women,
- There is evidence of a relationship between M.genitalium infection and fertility and pregnancy.
Mycoplasma pneumoniae. Pathogenic microorganisms that cause respiratory mycoplasmosis in men under 35 years old, mycoplasma pneumonia, and symptoms of the inflammatory process of the respiratory system. First of all, they affect the trachea and bronchi and become a source of SARS, pharyngitis, asthma and bronchitis. Penetrate into the cell and provoke autoimmune diseases. May cause meningitis, encephalitis, otitis media, anemia.
Mycoplasma hominis. It occurs on the mucous membranes and tissues of the genitourinary system.It affects the urethra and foreskin, worsens the qualitative composition of sperm and makes it unsuitable for conception, violates an erection, promotes the development of pyelonephritis.
Mycoplasma genitalium. The parasitic bacterium, mycoplasma genitalium, spreads to both the respiratory system and the genitourinary system in men. In 25% of cases, it leads to urethritis, prostatitis and infertility.
Ureaplasma urealyticum. It provokes the development of herpes, genital candidiasis, urethritis, reduces sperm activity.
Mycoplasmosis - the causative agent of prostatitis, urethritis and other diseases
Mycoplasmosis is a sexually transmitted disease caused by unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms - mycoplasmas (Mycoplasma).
The treatment of mycoplasmosis is aimed at destroying its pathogens in the human body and stimulating the immune response. The therapy is carried out by means of antiprotozoal drugs and antibiotics of different groups, taking into account the degree of the inflammatory process.
Treatment of mycoplasmosis, as a sexually transmitted disease, is carried out simultaneously in both sexual partners, otherwise there will be no effect from therapy.
What is mycoplasmosis, features of the vital activity of mycoplasmas
About 40 species of Mycoplasma bacteria are known. Only Mycoplasma hominis, Mycoplasma genitaliu, which cause diseases of the genitourinary system, and Mycoplasma pneumoniae are the cause of some diseases of the respiratory tract.
These bacteria can, in the normal state of the human body, be part of the microflora of the urethra, vagina and not manifest themselves. But under the influence of certain factors, mycoplasmas provoke cystitis, urethritis, pyelonephritis, cervicitis. Mycoplasmas are also found in the diagnosis of endometritis, prostatitis, adnexitis.
In some cases, pathogens can cause the development of autoimmune diseases, primarily the musculoskeletal system, causing arthritis and other serious problems.
Due to the fact that mycoplasmosis is asymptomatic, the likelihood of developing its various complications increases, including chronic inflammation of the appendages, prostate gland, and bladder. This fact complicates the course of the disease, prolongs it and worsens forecasts.
Treatment of mycoplasmosis in women
Treatment of mycoplasmosis in the fairer sex is carried out with antibiotics, which are prescribed after tests for the sensitivity of pathogens to a certain type of antibacterial drugs. The prescribed course can not be interrupted, since microbes can mutate and become resistant to the components of the drug, and this is dangerous by the transition of mycoplasmosis to a chronic form.
After a course of antibiotic treatment, restoration of the intestinal and vaginal microflora is necessary. Incubation of antibiotics for women can be used in parallel with blood purification. In these cases, women are also shown local procedures - douching, instillation of drugs into the urethra.
Mycoplasmosis treatment during pregnancy
During pregnancy, mycoplasmas are detected twice as often as usual. Gynecologists believe that this is due to sharp changes in the hormonal background and the immune system. Mycoplasmas are dangerous for the process of bearing the fetus and lead to its sinking and premature birth.
Experts are still debating the advisability of treating mycoplasmosis in pregnant women. What exactly to do should be decided by your attending gynecologist.
Mycoplasmas have some structural features of cells: they do not have a cell wall, therefore they are very sensitive to inhibitors (suppressors) of protein synthesis - without this process, the microorganism cannot live and multiply. But antibiotics of a number of tetracyclines are contraindicated during pregnancy. Therefore, the treatment consists of a 10-day course of Azithromycin, Erythromycin (most often), Rovamycin or Clindamycin.
In parallel with them, vitamins, probiotics and immunomodulators are prescribed. Therapy is carried out starting from the second trimester of pregnancy.
Signs of mycoplasmosis in men
Mycoplasmosis hominis, together with many similar other diseases, has a hidden course, which is why a long period passes during which the body is affected by various pathogenic microbes, and also does not receive proper treatment.
The first thing you should pay special attention to the following symptoms:
- transparent or yellow discharge from the urethra,
- the appearance of painful signs during intercourse and during urination,
- the color of the external urethra changes, it turns red,
- there is a certain discomfort and unpleasant itching,
- in cases of complications, pain can appear in the scrotum and perineum, as well as at the level of the rectum and lower back,
- rarely a characteristic skin rash appears (photos can be seen on many sources).
Symptoms and treatment of mycoplasmosis in men
When it enters the urogenital system of a person, mycoplasma may not manifest for a long time in any way, up to an exacerbation. In this situation, the person himself is not sick, but will be the carrier of the pathogen. The degree of manifestation and the rate of development of the disease depends on the general state of health and the functions of the immune system.
The incubation period lasts an average of 25 days. The first signs of the disease can appear within 3-4 weeks after the pathogen enters the urogenital system of a man.
However, most often after infection, a rather long period of time passes until the disease worsens, since in men mycoplasma is less active than in women.
Mycoplasmosis in men may not occur for a long time, while in the body in an inactive form. However, with a combination of negative circumstances, the pathology may aggravate. What are the symptoms and methods used to determine mycoplasmosis? How to treat and avoid relapse?
Rapid reproduction leads to the inflammatory process of the mucous membranes, since mycoplasmas destroy the membranes of epithelial cells. In the future, inflammation can go to nearby tissues and organs, provoking diseases of the urinary and reproductive system, up to infertility.
Mycoplasmosis: treatment in men
Mycoplasmosis can appear in men from the introduction of mycoplasmas into the body, which can be in the body of both humans and animals. This disease negatively affects the genitals, disrupting their performance and functions. In addition, there are general deterioration of the body against the background of alcoholism, smoking, the negative effects of external factors, nervous breakdowns and others.
Mycoplasma is a unicellular organism with a thin membrane, not subject to classification. Mycoplasmas are introduced into the body of men, eat, divide. They may not live long in the soil and warm bodies of water, but they can only be quickly shared in the human body.
Mycoplasma usually penetrates the organisms of cattle, dogs, various species of birds, as well as the human body. Most of all, these microorganisms affect the mucous membranes.
Pathogenic for the body of 2 types:
- mycoplasma hominis, mycoplasma genitalium, ureaplasma urealiticum are the types that affect the genitourinary system most often,
- mycoplasma pneumonia - organisms that affect the lungs and bronchi. They cause various inflammatory processes.
Mycoplasma hominis in women
They cause inflammation of the genitourinary system (ureoplasmosis) in men.
What are the causes of mycoplasmosis?
The emergence in men of mycoplasmosis occurs in three ways: alimentary, contact, sexual. Treatment should be as quick as possible to eliminate the consequences.
Since mycoplasia does not carry any pathogenic infections, they are classified as opportunistic microorganisms. In men, they can exist quite normally in a healthy body.
But if there is at least some pathology or pathogenic microorganisms in the body, then this can cause mycoplasmosis.
In men, mycoplasmosis can occur during intercourse with a carrier of infection.
What symptoms accompany this disease?
Before it manifests itself, the disease is preceded by a rather long incubation period, because most often mycoplasmosis proceeds in a latent form. The entire period of development of the disease, mycoplasmas live, divide and grow more and more, affecting the body. Signs of mycoplasmosis appear only in case of neglect and neglect of treatment.
The main and main primary signs in men can be manifested by the following symptoms:
- yellow-green or colorless discharge begins to appear from the penis
- urination and sexual intercourse are accompanied by pain, burning and discomfort.
- there is pastiness and redness of the external organs of urination, as well as burning,
- various inflammatory processes occur in the area of the scrotum, lumbar, perineum, rectum. But it’s worth noting that the symptoms occur as a consequence of mycoplasmosis,
- a skin rash may form on the body, but this is very rare.
Mycoplasmosis can be transmitted without contraceptives during intercourse with a person who is sick with this disease. Also, the infection can be transmitted by contact, but such infection is extremely rare.
With infection of the urethra, the disease can have quite serious consequences. If you ignore the disease and do not treat it, then mycoplasmosis begins to penetrate deeper, causing the inflammatory process of the urethra (urethritis), inflammation of the kidneys (pyelonephritis). Pyelonephritis can go into chronic glomerulonephritis and other more serious diseases.
As a result, in the male body there is a disruption in the performance of many organs of the reproductive system: the bladder, prostate, testicles, bulbourethral gland and others. These effects strongly affect male libido and its fertility.
At the slightest problems with the urinary system, a man needs to see a urologist. The first signs of the disease can be manifested by a rash on the body, burning sensation and pain during urination.
How is mycoplasmosis diagnosed?
To identify the disease, the doctor prescribes bacterial culture. If mycoplasmas are detected in men, they are tested for their susceptibility to antibiotics. And according to the results of the research, the doctor prescribes the necessary treatment regimen. However, if microorganisms are present in the body, it is not necessary to treat them. Therapy is carried out only in case of inflammatory processes.
With bacterial culture, bacteria can be detected in the human body.
What treatment is prescribed for mycoplasmosis?
When the first alarming symptoms appear, it is necessary to urgently consult a doctor and treat the ailment. How to treat mycoplasmosis in men? First you need to identify what type of pathogen has entered the body.
After that, the doctor prescribes treatment for mycoplasmosis. When Mycoplasma hominis enters the body, treatment is prescribed similar to gardnerellosis.
The treatment for Mycoplasma genitalium should be the same as for ureoplasmosis.
Usually, mixed antibiotics are prescribed as therapy, especially in the initial stages of a chronic disease. In addition, physiotherapy, stimulating drugs to activate and strengthen the immune system, and multivitamin preparations are needed.
Mycoplasma hominis or Mycoplasma genitalium can only be detected by a qualified doctor. In this case, full research results are needed.
Before prescribing treatment for this disease and prescribing medications, it is necessary to identify the causes of exposure and make a complete diagnosis of the body in order to detect the necessary types of mycoplasmas.It is also necessary to determine the susceptibility to substances in order to correctly select drugs.
If certain types of microorganisms are detected, treatment of the disease is possible with tetracycline antibiotics, macrolides, antimycotic drugs. In parallel with this, lincosamines, antiprotozoal drugs, to the action of which mycoplasma is very susceptible, are prescribed.
If the consequences affected the kidneys, then it is necessary to apply intensive treatment.
Table of drugs used for mycoplasmosis in men
|Pharmacological Group||A drug||Dosage|
|Tetracyclines||Doxycycline||0.1 g 2 times a day, 1-2 weeks|
|Tetracycline||250-500 mg 4 times a day, week|
|Macrolides||Erythromycin||250-500 mg 2 times a day for 7-14 days|
|Roxithromycin||150 mg 2 times a day, 1-2 weeks|
|Josamycin||0.5–1 g 2-3 times a day for 1-2 weeks|
|Clarithromycin||250 mg 2 times a day, 1-2 weeks|
|Fluoroquinolones||Ofloxacin||200 mg 2 times a day, 1-2 weeks|
|Pefloxacin||400 mg 2 times a day, 1-2 weeks|
|Moxifloxacin||400 mg 2 times a day, 5-10 days|
|Levofloxacin||250-500 mg 1-2 times a day, 7-10 days|
|Aminoglycosides||Gentamicin||The daily dose of 0.8-1.2 mg / kg / m in 2-3 doses|
|Azalides||Azithromycin||1 day - 0.5 1 time per day 2–5 days - 0.25 g once a day|
Prevention of mycoplasmosis?
In order not to get sick with mycoplasmosis, you need to adhere to simple preventive measures:
- Eliminate factors that would weaken the immune system and prevent the penetration of mycoplasmas into the male body.
- Pay more time to sports and hardening. This will not only strengthen the body as a whole, but also keep the body in shape.
- Do not drink alcohol and quit smoking.
- More walk in the fresh air.
- Diagram of proper nutrition. Daily nutrition should contain all the necessary vitamins and minerals.
- Refrain from sexual intercourse without contraceptives and unverified partners. This is a very important point. An exception can only be if the partner is one, constant, and she is healthy.
If you have suspicions that you are sick with mycoplasmosis, then you must immediately make a diagnosis and consult a doctor so that he prescribes the necessary treatment.