Lecithin grains, amyloid bodies and other inclusions in prostate secretion
Prostate secretion, or prostate secret, is an opalescent liquid with a specific odor, which is the result of the activity of the prostate glands (prostate). Under natural physiological conditions, the secretion of the prostate gland is an integral part of sperm, providing the normal fertilizing ability of sperm.
The chemical and biological composition of the secretion of the prostate gland
The secretion of the prostate gland contains 92-95% of water, as well as salts of potassium, calcium, sodium, zinc, chlorides, phosphates, bicarbonates, citrates, numerous enzymes and protein substances. In addition to the liquid part, the secretion of the prostate gland contains cellular elements - leukocytes, epithelial cells, as well as specific non-cellular particles - lipoid, or lecithin, grains and amyloid bodies.
Spermine causes a specific smell of prostate secretion, and whitish opalescent color gives it lipoid (lecithin) grains and cholesterol crystals. Lecithin grains and cholesterol crystals are the product of normal physiological secretion of the prostate gland. It is believed that the quantitative content of lecithin grains and cholesterol crystals in the secretion of the prostate gland reflects its functional state. Normally, lecithin grains under microscopy of the secretion of the prostate gland densely cover all fields of vision. It is the presence of lecithin grains and cholesterol crystals that determines the opalescence of the normal secretion of the prostate gland. Amyloid bodies are stained with a solution of Lugol in purple or blue like starch and it is in this connection that they got their name.
The secretion of the prostate gland contains prostaglandins, prostatic acid phosphatase (prostatic acid phosphatase), as well as other enzymes - hyaluronidase, fibrinolysin (fibrinolysin) and fibrokinase, which help thin the ejaculate, activating the movement of spermatozoa in the genital tract of women. An indicator of the functional state of the prostate gland is also the content of citric acid and zinc ions in the secretion of the prostate gland (and in the ejaculate). The secret that is obtained after massage of the prostate gland also contains a small amount of epithelial cells of the excretory ducts of the prostate glands.
The physiological significance of prostate secretion
The secretion of the prostate gland is about 1/3 of the volume of the ejaculate. It is believed that the secret of the prostate gland is necessary to maintain motor activity and viability of sperm outside the body of a man. The normal composition of the secretion of the prostate gland is one of the conditions for maintaining the normal fertilizing ability (fertility) of the ejaculate. With inflammation of the prostate gland (prostatitis), the fertilizing ability of spermatozoa is disrupted, excretory toxic infertility develops. The prostate gland is an androgen-dependent organ, therefore, with a decrease in the level of male sex hormones, for example during castration, the secretory activity of the prostate gland decreases.
Prostate secretion technique
The secret of the prostate gland is obtained after a digital massage of the prostate gland through the rectum. Before the test, it is necessary that the man urinate in order to remove the contents from the urethra. The prostate gland is massaged according to the rules of medical finger massage. The secret released from the external opening of the urethra is placed on a glass slide or in a sterile tube. If a secret is not released after prostate massage, the man is offered to urinate in a test tube, and a study is carried out after centrifugation of the urine received.
Prostate secretion test
The amount obtained during massage of the secretion of the prostate under normal conditions is 0.5-2.0 ml. Examination of the secretion of the prostate gland allows you to establish the presence or absence of an inflammatory process in the prostate gland (prostatitis). Microscopic examination of the secretion of the prostate gland matters: the number of leukocytes, the presence or absence of blood (red blood cells) in the secret, the presence and type of microorganisms, the number of lecithin grains, cholesterol crystals and amyloid bodies. It should be noted that the once normal analysis of the secretion of the prostate gland does not guarantee the absence of an inflammatory process in the prostate gland and does not exclude its presence. This is possible due to obstruction (blockage) of the excretory ducts of the prostate glands with a thick viscous secret. Normally, the secretion of the prostate gland determines no more than 10 white blood cells in the field of view, a large number of lecithin grains, microflora and red blood cells are absent. Most objectively, one can judge the number of leukocytes when counting leukocytes of prostate secretion in the counting chamber. The norm is the number of leukocytes up to 300 cells in 1 μl (300 x 10 −6 / l). The normal number of leukocytes in the secretion of the prostate gland is observed with category IIIb prostatitis according to the NIH classification (i.e. with non-inflammatory chronic prostatitis / chronic pelvic pain syndrome).
Description of prostate secretion
Prostate juice is secreted when a man’s genitals are excited. Spermatozoa in the secretion of the prostate move more easily during ejaculation, and this secreted fluid is also involved in the nucleation of male cells. A sample for analysis is obtained by massage of the gland through the anus, whereby the secretion is secreted from the urethra.
The secret of the prostate gland contains:
- Water in the amount of 95–98%.
- Organic matter (e.g. protein).
- Minerals (e.g. zinc, calcium).
- Cellular formations (e.g., white blood cells).
- Non-cellular formations (lecithin grains).
In secret of the prostate, lecithin grains (also called lipoid bodies) stain its whitish color, and spermine gives a characteristic smell. Thanks to the lipoid bodies and the cholesterol accompanying them, the doctor can see the full result of the examination: a healthy man has many of them - lecithin grains in the secretion of the prostate perform a protective function.
Analysis of prostate secretion takes place in three stages:
- Macroscopic examination: color, smell, fern syndrome.
- Microscopic examination - bacteriological culture for the presence of fungi and bacteria. After receiving the analyzes, the values in them, it is advisable to compare with the values of the laboratory in which they were tested. Each laboratory has its own norm in connection with different technical characteristics of the equipment.
- Ultrasound diagnosis of the prostate gland.
Prostate Secret Analysis
How do patients prepare for prostatic fluid delivery?
To pass informative material, the patient must be prepared. To do this, you must adhere to some of the recommendations of the doctor.
- 10-12 hours before the delivery of the material for testing, a man should not eat.
- The sutra is a cleansing enema.
- Before collecting secretory fluid, the urea must be emptied.
- 3-5 days before the delivery of secretory juice, it is forbidden to have sex.
- Bath, sauna and alcohol are not allowed for a week before the analysis.
Sometimes men need psychological support or the use of sedative medications, since not everyone can easily tolerate the massage of the prostate gland, which is carried out to collect prostatic secretions.
Prostatic juice is examined in several ways:
- Detection of crystallization - in the secretory composition there is a large amount of sodium chloride. During crystallization, salts take various forms, these forms depend on the nature of the liquid. The norm is when the pattern is similar to a fern leaf, complex and orderly. The more deviations, the pronounced random arrangement of crystals.
- Microscopic analysis of the collected fluid volume, color, acidity, density.
- Assessment of cell structure (red blood cells, white blood cells).
- Examine the juice for available macrophages.
- Evaluation of available epithelial cells and another.
- Bacteriological assessment - the determination of the presence of microbes that could provoke a pathological process.
Results of a secretion test for prostatitis
The secretory fluid has a dull yellow color with a sweetish odor and an acidic pH reaction. An increased number of white blood cells and epithelium. There are single lecithin grains or Trusso-Lalleman bodies.
Pelvic Pain Results
The fluid of the prostate is reddish-red, odorless, with an acidic pH. The composition of the white blood cells is normal, but the number of red blood cells is increased to 1/3 of the cells. Up to 15 macrophages and up to 30 epithelial cells are in sight. Many amyloid bodies are present and in units there are lecithin grains.
Conclusion: timely examination of the secretion fluid of the prostate will help men avoid serious diseases, begin effective treatment.
The following parameters are measured and visually evaluated:
The norm of the total volume is more than 2 ml. A smaller amount indicates insufficient prostate function or poor transport of seminal fluid. A volume of more than 5 ml may indicate an infectious process in the exocrine tubular-alveolar gland (inflammatory lesion of the prostate, chronic vesiculitis).
The standard color of the ejaculate is milky, transparent-bluish, gray or with yellowness. Scarlet, brown color indicates the presence of blood in the semen, which indicates physical damage (trauma), the presence of phosphate, oxalate, urate stones and either a tumor. Too much due to liver disease, medication, food coloring. Spermine has a characteristic sour aroma.
The time it takes for seminal fluid to become homogeneous. A long liquefaction period indicates a lack of prostate enzymes - fibrinolysin and fibrogenase. Norm: up to 1 hour.
The viscosity (fluidity) of the ejaculate.
The viscosity of the seminal fluid is measured in centimeters of the thread, at which it is transformed into a drop until it is separated from a special needle. Norm: 0.1-0.5 cm. The fertility of patients with a thread length of more than 2 cm is significantly reduced.
pH (ejaculate reaction).
Norm: 7.2-7.8. Sperm can complete a full movement only in an alkaline environment.
Kinesisgram is the percentage of sperm with different motility. The number of motile sperm is the main criterion in assessing their usefulness. Actively motile sperm cells have rapid translational movement with movement in the field of view. Slightly motile sperm cells move slowly, making oscillatory movements or twitching in place. The study is carried out with a field of view limiter according to Fonio.
Study progress. A drop of mixed ejaculate is applied to a dry glass slide and covered with a coverslip. Microscope, counting at least 100 cells, noting the number of actively motile (normokinesis), few motility (hypokinesis) and motionless (akinesis) sperm. Calculate the percentage of sperm with different motility.
The kinesisgram is normal. In a normal ejaculate, actively motile spermatozoa make up 60-90%, slightly motile - 10-20%, motionless - no more than 10%.
For a general visual assessment, you can use the scale in points:
4 - active motility (all sperm cells have rectilinear motility at a significant speed),
3 - good motility (most sperm have rectilinear motility, but its speed is reduced),
2 - mediocre mobility (a small number of sperm moves forward),
1 - poor mobility (translational movement of sperm is absent),
0 - complete absence of sperm movement.
Determination of the number of live and dead sperm
Principle. The method is based on the fact that a solution of eosin stains dead spermatozoa, while living ones do not stain, since the dehydrase enzyme contained in them restores eosin, which at the same time loses its staining properties.
The course of the study.On a glass slide apply 1 drop of sperm, next - 2 drops of a 5% aqueous solution of eosin. The drops are mixed, a thin smear is made, dried and microscopic with immersion. At least 200 cells are counted, highlighting live (colorless) and dead (stained red-violet) spermatozoa when counting.
Normally, the ejaculate contains at least 90% of live sperm.
Microscopic examination of stained preparations (sperm count). A spermatogram reflects the ratio of sperm count with normal and pathological morphology.
A drop of well-mixed sperm is placed on a glass slide, a smear is made from it, stained according to Pappenheim and microscopied with immersion, differentiating at least 200 sperm.
Normally morphologically unchanged spermatozoa make up 80-85%.
Pathological forms include spermatozoa with a deformed head (macro-, micro-, conical heads, coracoid, double-headed with one neck and one tail, without a neck), with several tails, without a tail, etc.
Microscopic indicators of the norm
These are macroscopic indicators determined by external examination of the material. Using microscopic research methods, the following indicators of a normal spermogram are determined:
- one milliliter of ejaculate should contain from 20 million sperm, in total, the resulting material should contain at least 40 million male germ cells,
- at least a quarter (25%) of them should be actively mobile,
- immobile sperm should be less than half (50% or less),
- agglutination and aggregation (bonding and the formation of large clusters) should not be determined,
- white blood cell count - not more than 1 million,
- normal sperm should make up more than half (50%) of all cells,
- spermatozoa with a normal structure (morphology) of the head normally make up more than 30%,
- in the ejaculate can be no more than 2-4% of spermatogenesis cells (immature progenitors of germ cells).
These may include terms showing sperm quality and sperm count:
- aspermia: there is no ejaculate (that is, empty dishes have been delivered),
- oligozoospermia: a decrease in the number of cells in 1 ml of ejaculate less than 20 million,
- azoospermia: no sperm found in the ejaculate,
- cryptozoospermia: single sperm cells were found after an in-depth search using centrifugation,
- asthenozoospermia: sperm are inactive,
- teratozoospermia: pathological forms of sperm.
If a bad spermogram is detected, it is necessary to repeat the analysis two weeks after appropriate preparation and compliance with all conditions of delivery. In case of doubt, the study is repeated three times, and the best result is taken as reliable.Usually it is recommended to do repeated tests in different laboratories in order to exclude a subjective assessment by the same laboratory doctor.
In general, all spermogram indicators can change after some time. Therefore, the revealed violations are not a reason for panic and baseless accusations of a partner.
Below we present the main results and causes of deviations from the norm.
Lecithin grains in prostate secretion what is it
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The study of prostate juice is the main method for the diagnosis of chronic prostatitis. Prostate juice is subjected to special staining methods either without staining using color microscopy. Laboratory diagnostic methods such as PCR and bacteriological culture (bacterial culture) are also possible.
Lecithin grains in the secretion of the prostate give characteristic physical properties. In the native preparation, they have a rounded shape and can resemble a saw cut tree, having a layered structure. These small non-cellular inclusions, which look like small grains, are normally found in large quantities in prostate juice.
- Lecithin (lipoid) grains are fatty in nature and are a complex of phospholipids.
- With the staining technique with Lugol's solution, they acquire a pronounced blue-violet color.
- With prolonged stagnant inflammatory processes, their content decreases, until complete disappearance.
Bacteriological inoculation of prostate juice (tank inoculation of prostate secretion) is carried out in order to identify pathogenic microflora.
- The material before this type of analysis is collected in a sterile container or test tube and delivered to the laboratory within 2 hours.
- The bacteriologist-laboratory assistant will perform inoculation on a nutrient medium, incubate in a thermostat (a laboratory cabinet that maintains the temperature at the optimum level for microorganisms, usually 37 degrees), make on a glass slide and stain smears from sprouted colonies.
The bacteriologist will microscopicize the preparations with immersion oil and will describe in conclusion the identified flora.
Also, a bacterial study allows you to determine the resistance (resistance) to groups of various antibiotics. One of the methods: disks impregnated with an antibiotic are placed on a nutrient medium and observe in which sector growth is noted and in which it stops.
The antibioticogram has great diagnostic value, as it helps to choose an antibacterial drug individually. Prostate juice is normally sterile, a complete lack of growth is a good prognostic sign.
Advanced laboratories are equipped with automatic analyzers that carry out the cultivation and identification of microorganisms with minimal staff intervention and in a short time, completely eliminating the contamination (contamination) of the sample and increasing the sensitivity of the study.
Amyloid bodies in the secretion of the prostate represent an oval-shaped clot of prostate juice. In a healthy person, amyloid bodies are not found in the juice of the prostate. The bodies themselves are the main symptom of the development of amyloidosis.
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Amyloidosis is a disease that results from the wrong amount of protein in body tissues.
- Amyloidosis may appear as an isolated disease or as a result of another disease.
- Symptoms in patients with amyloidosis result from the malfunctioning of specific affected organs.
- Amyloidosis is diagnosed by biopsy of the included tissue.
Prostate Secretion Microscopy: Macrophage Determination
Microscopy of prostate secretion can be performed both in the native (without the use of dyes) preparation and stained, when each structure acquires a pronounced color and is easier to identify.
In conclusion, the presence and quantity of lecithin grains, leukocytes, erythrocytes, squamous or round epithelium cells is described. In the inflammatory process under microscopy, macrophages are found - phagocytes of small sizes. It is through the presence of macrophages in the secretion of the prostate that an inflammatory process or stasis in the prostate gland can be detected.
- Detection of the epithelial component. If the prostate gland is healthy, then the epithelial cells are in very limited numbers. With an increased number of epithelial cells, along with leukocytes, they warn of the occurrence of an inflammatory process that requires immediate treatment. What is found in the analysis
- White blood cells. The norm in a healthy man is the detection of a dozen white blood cells. With a higher detected amount, prostatitis is diagnosed. Sometimes leukocytes penetrate the secretory secretion through the urethra. The leukocyte count in the material is carried out using a counting chamber. Normally, it is considered when three hundred leukocytes are detected per 1 microlite of material.
- Red blood cells should not be present in the body of a healthy man when examining prostatic juice, or can be detected in a single quantity. When a man is sick with prostatitis or an oncological process is detected, red blood cells are present in secret.
- Lecithin grains. When the secretion of the prostate has a lot of lecithin grains, the seminal fluid is whitish, which indicates the absence of problems. A small number of lecithin grains indicates the occurrence of prostatitis.
- Macrophages. The detection of these components in large numbers warns of the inflammatory process or congestion.
- Amyloid bodies. These are clots in a prostatic fluid, oval in shape. In a healthy male body, they are not detected. If they are present, stasis in the prostate gland, an inflammatory process, or an adenoma are diagnosed. In analyzes of older men, amyloid bodies are often found.
- Cells, gigantic sizes. Fragments are present during stagnation or inflammatory process.
- Pathogenic flora. It is detected with inflammation or infection. When they are found, bacosowing is carried out to establish a variety that prescribe effective therapy.
- Betther crystallization. The appearance of these crystals warns of the drying of the prostatic juice in the gland.
- Atypical cells. Their presence indicates the development of an adenoma or oncological process, their number allows you to determine the stage of the disease and control its development.
- Detection of mucus indicates the presence of inflammation.
For the diagnosis of men, other tests are also prescribed. Since the presence of the pathological process can be considered in urine, blood, ultrasound and other studies.
Deciphering the analysis of the secret allows you to more accurately determine the health status of the male urinary and reproductive system and prescribe the correct, effective treatment.
Using a microscope, the following parameters are examined:
Concentration (density) of sperm in 1 ml.
The density of male germ cells in 1 ml of seminal fluid. Norm: more than 20 million / ml.
The ability of germ cells to move. The deterioration of the ability of sperm to move is called asthenozoospermia, which can be caused by inflammation of the genitourinary system, environmental factors, and toxic effects. Estimated by groups:
- A - active-moving (norm: more than 50%),
- B - inactive with rectilinear movement (norm: 10-20%),
- C - inactive with rotational or oscillatory motion (norm: 10-20%),
- D - motionless (norm: 10-20%).
- The total number of sperm. Norm: 40-600 million
- Determination of live sperm.
- Norm: 50% or more. An increased number of non-viable sperm can occur under the influence of external factors. This condition may be temporary.
- Morphological study of sperm (study of the structure of the shape of the head and tail).
Qualitative and quantitative assessment in semen of the volume of germ cells having a typical structure and capable of fertilization. Norm: 20% or more.
Identification of immature germ cells (spermatogenesis cells).
Epithelial cells of the testicular tubules of the testis. Norm: no more than 2%.
Agglutination and sperm aggregation.
The fact of gluing and the presence of clots from male germ cells. Normally absent.
White blood cells. Norm: single cells or 3-4 in accessible visibility (1 * 10 6 in 1 ml).
These red blood cells normally should not be present in the analysis. Their presence is an alarming symptom. The red blood cells in the spermogram may indicate tumors, inflammation.
They are formed as a result and are oval-shaped formations. Normally absent.
Must be present in the ejaculate. They are non-cellular formations (by the type of symplast) produced by the prostate. Large amounts of lecithin grains are included in the composition, due to which sperm has a whitish hue. The absence or small amount of lecithin grains in the ejaculate can indirectly report on the pathology of the prostate gland - latent chronic prostatitis.
In the seminal fluid of a healthy man is absent. With prostatitis or vesiculitis in the ejaculate, thick sticky mucus envelops the sperm, which indicates inflammation of the accessory genital glands.
What is the presence of epithelium in the secretion of the prostate?
The prostate gland is an unpaired organ located in a man in the small pelvis, with the base fused to the bladder and connected by a ligament to the pubic joint. The back surface of the organ is adjacent to the rectum.
The prostate gland performs an exocrine function, secreting a specific secret, it also acts as a mechanical valve, protecting the ejaculate from mixing it with urine. The prostate plays an important role in the formation of sexual behavior and orgasm.
Prostate Secret Functions
The prostatic secretion produced by the gland is necessary to ensure the viability of the sperm that has left the male body. About 30% of secreted ejaculate accounts for the secretion of the prostate. Violation of the composition of this fluid negatively affects sperm fertility. Pathological conditions of the prostate in the absence of treatment lead to infertility.
Maintaining neutral acid-base balance of the urethra.
Due to the enzymatic activity, the necessary concentration of seminal fluid is provided, the process of ejaculation is facilitated. Antibacterial activity: protection of the genital tract from infection.
Prostatic Secret Technology
If a prostate pathology is suspected, the urologist recommends that the man pass the prostate secret for analysis. Proper fluid intake ensures the accuracy of the data. 4 days before the scheduled procedure, you should abandon sexual activity. To obtain biological material, it is necessary that a trained specialist conduct the manipulation.
A man needs to empty his bladder. If, due to the ongoing inflammatory process, there are discharge from the urethra, it is necessary to rinse. The doctor massages the prostate gland, stimulating the secretion of the prostate.
The separated liquid is collected in a sterile container and sent for laboratory testing. The secret, which was not released after stimulation into the environment, got into the cavity of the bladder. A man collects urine, to separate prostatic fluid, urine is centrifuged.
Decryption of analyzes
Deciphering the notation will help to understand the analysis. Standards for prostate secretion indicators:
- volume - from 0.5 to 2 ml. With an increase or decrease in the amount of fluid, a deviation is indicated,
- the color should be whitish, but bright white or yellow, red is a symptom of the inflammatory process,
- the smell is specific, some compare it with the smell of raw chestnut,
- moderate density is 1022, it speaks of fertilization,
- acidity reaction - normally slightly acidic or neutral,
- white blood cells in the secretion of the prostate, when examined with a microscope with an increase of 280, normally from 0 to 10 in p / sp (in the field of view), with an increase of 400 - from 0 to 5 in p / sp, 300 cells / μl (when using a counting chamber ),
- red blood cells should be absent
- epithelial cells can be 1 or 2 in n / a,
- macrophages no more than 1-2 in n / a, a larger number is considered a deviation,
- giant cells - missing
- amyloid bodies in a healthy person in the juice of the prostate are absent,
- there should be many lecithin grains, about 10 million,
- Betther crystals - practically do not affect the result, a single presence,
- the fern symptom is normally positive,
- gonococcus is absent,
- Trichomonas - absent,
- fungi are absent
- flora - normal bacteria in a single amount.
If the required amount of juice cannot be taken for analysis, then a urine test is prescribed, after having made a prostate massage. Also, going to analyze prostate juice, you need to refrain from sexual activity for several days. With inflammation of the prostate gland or urethra, an increase in leukocytes and red blood cells is possible, due to which the color of the juice changes. The presence of red blood cells is cause for concern, perhaps we are talking about neoplasms. An uncharacteristic odor, discoloration, and mucus in secret indicate inflammation of the reproductive organs. Amyloid bodies are stained with Lugol's solution, and if the color turns purple, then something in the body is wrong. Acidic acidity of the prostate juice is a sign of the disease. Deviations from the norm of density to a smaller or greater side in a healthy person can not be.
Amyloid bodies in the analyzes may indicate the occurrence of adenoma. The latter is diagnosed by the abundant content of macrophages and multinucleated cells. Lipoid bodies in an increased amount do not affect the diagnosis, but in a lower one they indicate the possible presence of a neoplasm, prostatitis or inflammation of the genitourinary tract. Macrophages are present in analyzes when inflammation has been going on for a long time. Also, their presence involves stagnation of the secretion of the prostate. The presence of epithelial cells (epithelium - exfoliated cells of the excretory ducts) does not correspond to the norm (maximum 1-2 cells in s / sp). An increased value in the results of the examination signals an inflammatory process, and in a fat or protein form, malignant.
Ultrasound diagnoses hyperechoic inclusions of the prostate gland - stones from salts and phosphorus. For the most part, calcification is the result of chronic prostatitis or adenoma. But there are exceptions when previously uncomfortable stones are discovered by chance. Such a formation in the prostate gland is found in one third of the male population, due to a sedentary lifestyle, lack of sexual activity and lack of exercise, a sedentary lifestyle.
Microscopic examination of the secretion of the prostate gland is a procedure aimed at studying the cellular structure of prostate juice, its composition, the presence of pathogenic microorganisms and foreign particles. All this allows you to detect the presence of inflammation and determine its nature - infectious or non-bacterial (stagnant). With infectious inflammation, microscopy of the secretion of the prostate gland will show the presence of one or more pathogens of the possible:
- Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
- E. coli (Escherichia).
- Mycelium of fungi.
Microscopy of prostate juice also examines physical parameters and other indicators that can determine the pathology or prescribe additional examinations, among them:
- The amount of fluid released during the sampling of the material.
- The color, smell, density and acidity of the secretion.
- The presence of mucus impurities.
- The presence of epithelial cells.
- The presence of white blood cells.
- The presence of red blood cells.
- The presence of macrophages and giant cells.
- The density of lecithin grains.
- Amyloid bodies.
- Crystallization pattern (Bether crystals).
A microscopic examination of the secretion of the prostate gland is prescribed for complaints of the following symptoms:
- pain during urination, too frequent urges to him, a small amount of urine, a feeling of incomplete emptying,
- pain in the groin and perineum,
- discharge from the head of the penis,
- sexual dysfunctions, decreased potency, discomfort during ejaculation,
- suspected infertility.
There are some limitations to the procedure for collecting material for analysis:
- with damage to the anus,
- high body temperature,
- acute inflammatory processes
- the presence of hemorrhoids,
- tuberculosis of the prostate gland.
Under these conditions, only a sperm sowing tank is carried out and instrumental examination methods are prescribed.
The investigated parameters
The color of the opalescent liquid is transparent white. Brownish, pronounced white, yellow, reddish hues indicate the development of a pathological process. The volume of biomaterial is 0.5-2 ml. Prostatitis is characterized by a decrease in the volume of secretion. In case of stagnation, on the contrary, the amount of fluid increases. Characteristic odor due to spermine. Density 1,022. Any other values indicate pathology. pH is neutral or slightly acidic. Alkalization or acidification indicates disease and, as a result, impaired sperm function. Red blood cells are not detected outside the pathology. Hematospermia (an admixture of blood in semen) indicates chronic prostatitis, adenoma, or organ carcinoma.
The epithelium (desquamated cells of the excretory ducts) in the secretion of the prostate is found in the form of separate cells. Acceptable detection of 1-2 epithelial cells in the field of view. An increase in the number indicates desquamation (increased peeling of the epithelial lining of the ducts), which is found in the inflammatory process. Cylindrical epithelium in a state of fatty or protein degeneration may indicate the development of a malignant process.
Macrophages are found in chronic inflammation. Grains of lecithin: multiple (up to 10 million in 1 ml). A decrease in lecithin is noted with prostatitis. Microscopic fungi are seen in secret in pathology. Bacterial cells are found in bacterial prostatitis. In a normal prostatic fluid, the presence of single opportunistic bacteria is permissible.
E. coli should not be detected. White blood cells: no more than 10 in sight. An increase in the number of leukocytes indicates an inflammatory process of the prostate gland or urethra. Giant cells, amyloid bodies are found in congestive glands. The unchanged secret crystallizes after drying, the crystals by their arrangement resemble fern leaves (symptom of fern). Atypical cells indicate the development of a malignant tumor.
The preparation process and sampling
Before taking the material for analysis, it is necessary to adhere to some requirements:
- stop eating 10 hours before the procedure,
- 3 days before delivery of the material for analysis, it is necessary to refuse sexual intercourse,
- do not drink alcohol in 2-3 days,
- avoid visits to saunas, baths, as well as hypothermia.
Before taking the material, an enema will be delivered. It is also necessary to empty the bladder. To start collecting material, the subject should take one of the poses in which access to the rectum will be as convenient as possible. By palpation, the doctor stimulates the prostate through the rectum, after which the prostate is collected on a glass slide and transferred to the laboratory. To get more accurate results, then you need to take a urine and urethral discharge test.
Norm of lipoid bodies in semen
The norm is considered to be 5-10 million in 1 ml of ejaculate, while deviation from the lower or upper border of the norm is not critical. Most laboratories do not use the norm of lecithin grains in the ejaculate, but indicate the presence of + to +++. Normally, the bodies cover the entire field of view in the study of sperm. Since the presence of grains does not affect the conception process, specific criteria for WHO norms and deviations
Some experts consider the presence of lecithin grains as an indirect sign of the activity of sex hormones. A sufficient concentration of lecithin grains in secret indicates the normal functioning of the prostate gland and presumably high fertility. Some laboratories consider more than 10 million grains per 1 ml of sample to be the norm. A decrease in the concentration of grains or their absence indirectly indicates a malfunction of the prostate gland.
Deciphering the results
The interpretation of the analysis of the secretion of the prostate gland does not serve as an accurate indicator of a particular disease, but judging by the deviations of the indicators, it is possible to determine the presence of pathology and subsequent examinations. In addition, microscopy of the secretion is repeated, after some time. This makes it possible to compare the results and understand how the course of the disease occurs.
Interpretation of the survey results occurs when comparing with the norm indicators:
What are microscopy used for?
The study of the secretion of the prostate gland by specialists allows us to determine the presence of various diseases at various stages of the disease associated with the prostate gland of a man.
Sowing a secret the prostate gland allows an assessment of its qualitative functioning.
The collected fluid is examined under a microscope, which makes it possible to find out whether there are inflammatory processes in the prostate, what is its functional feature, whether a man suffers from prostatitis or other diseases associated with the prostate.
Microscopy prostate secretion allows you to assess the severity of the disease, find out the cause of its appearance, as well as choose an effective method of treatment.
Prostate Juice Characterization
Prostatic juice is one of the constituent elements of an ejaculant. One third of the semen is this particular juice. It is necessary for the activity and movement of sperm. Without a normal, fertilized ability, a man cannot conceive a child. Conception can only happen if the composition of the secret is normal. An important role in this is played by amyloid bodies in the secretion of the prostate, or rather their absence. If a man has an inflammatory process, then conception cannot occur either. But what is the role of amyloid bodies in the secretion of the prostate? Before answering this question, you should familiarize yourself with exactly which elements can be detected during the analysis of the secretion of the prostate.
To remove the secretion of the prostate, the patient lies on his side and pulls the legs bent at the knees to the chest.
You can also use the knee-elbow pose, which is most convenient for fluid intake.
The urologist inserts a finger into the rectum and conducts a special massage of the prostate.
In this case, the man is excited and there is a discharge seminal fluid.
It is immediately applied to a glass slide or collected in a special sterile container and then sent to the laboratory for research for no more than 2 hours.
If it is not possible to take sperm from the patient, the doctor takes the initial urine dose. If in the urine the indicators differ from normal, additional tests are carried out, as this can be regarded by a urologist as a sign of various kinds of changes in prostate gland.
If the prostate in a man is healthy, then the epithelial cells are contained in it in small quantities. If this amount increases with leukocytes, then in this case it is customary to talk about the development of the inflammatory process in the prostate gland. At the first symptoms, a man needs immediate treatment.
What is a tank sowing and how is it carried out?
Bacteriological culture it is customary to call a special laboratory study, as a result of which the prostate secretion is placed in such a nutrient medium where microorganisms begin to actively multiply.
It turns out a pure culture of the causative agent of the disease. Microorganisms grown in a special thermostat at a certain temperature (in most cases at 37 degrees) in petri dishes have a high degree of sensitivity to certain antibacterial agents.
Due to this, you can easily establish how to deal with bacteriais there in the body infection and which drug should be prescribed to the patient in order to suppress their reproduction and vital activity.
To do this, to areas of the cluster bacteria apply with a disk solutions with various types antibiotics. As a result, it is easy to determine which drug had the greatest negative effect on microorganisms, and which drug the bacteria have resistance to.
Examination of the secretion of the prostate also helps to determine what type of pathogens belong and what is their concentration in the secretion of the prostate.
White blood cells
Normally, in a healthy patient, when passing an analysis of prostate juice, about 10 white blood cells can be detected. But if there are more leukocytes in this analysis, then, as a rule, prostatitis is diagnosed in such cases. In some cases, white blood cells enter the secretion of the prostate through the urethra. The calculation of white blood cells in this material is carried out using a counting chamber. A norm is considered if about 300 leukocytes fall per 1 microlite of the analysis passed.
But what is amyloid body in prostate secretion? They are clots in the analysis. Speaking about the fact that these are amyloid bodies in the secretion of the prostate, it should also be noted that these elements have an oval shape. If the male body is healthy, then they should not be detected during analysis. Amyloid bodies in the secretion of the prostate increase with stagnation in the prostate gland. In addition, this phenomenon may indicate the development of the inflammatory process. Also, amyloid bodies in the secretion of the prostate appear during the development of prostate adenoma. It is worth noting that in the analysis of elderly patients, quite often, specialists find these elements. Normally, amyloid bodies in the secretion of the prostate should be absent.
When atypical cells are found in the secretion of the prostate, this may indicate the development of prostate adenoma, as well as an oncological process. Due to the number of these cells, it is possible to identify the stages of the disease, as well as to control its development.
In addition, if mucus was detected in the secretory fluid, this may indicate the presence of an inflammatory process. In parallel with this, other tests can be prescribed to the patient, because the presence of any pathology can be seen in the analysis of blood, urine, using ultrasound, as well as other studies.
More on amyloid bodies
We have already figured out what this means - amyloid bodies in the secret of the prostate. However, it is worthwhile to become more familiar with what this component is. Amyloid bodies in the secretion of the prostate, photos of which can be seen in this article, are a condensed constituent substance with a layered structure and an oval shape. In some cases, these elements may also have an irregular shape. If a man does not have any pathologies, then when analyzing the secretion of the prostate, these elements are not detected. But if there are amyloid bodies in the secret of the prostate in an adult, what does this mean? The presence of this component indicates a possible development of gland hypertrophy, an inflammatory process or adenoma.
In addition, amyloid bodies are the last element from prostate juice, which indicates the possible occurrence of an inflammatory process due to impaired functioning of the organ or due to the penetration of bacteria.
Prostate Secret Analysis
Analysis of prostate juice is a laboratory study, with which you can assess the function of the organ, as well as identify various diseases at the initial stage of their development, such as cancer, prostatitis, infertility. This study is widespread in medical practice, because it effectively determines the main causes of the development of the disease, does not need long preparation for implementation, and is also economically viable.
The secret of the prostate plays a very important role in the ability to fertilize the ejaculate. Thanks to the juice of the prostate gland, spermatozoa are able to maintain their motor activity outside the body of a man.
A few days before the appointment of an analysis, a man should refrain from sexual intimacy. For a couple of days, you should also refuse to take alcoholic beverages, heavy physical exertion and visiting a bath or sauna. Before passing the analysis, it is best to make a cleansing enema. To get prostate juice, you will need to perform a massage of this organ.
To do this, the patient fits on his right side. You can also take a knee-elbow pose. Then, the specialist with a finger, which is inserted into the rectum, should feel for the prostate. Using stroking movements along the gland from the periphery to the center, the specialist should put pressure on the isthmus of the prostate, which stimulates the secretion of juice through the urethra. After this, the secret must immediately be collected in a sterile container.
If the secret is not released, then the patient should urinate, while collecting the first portion of urine. As a rule, it contains the secret of the prostate.